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Exploring the Aditya L1 Mission: India’s Sun-Observing Marvel


The Aditya L1 Mission, India’s pioneering space-based observatory, marks a significant milestone in the realm of space exploration and solar studies. In this blog, we’ll delve into the unique features of this mission and the advantages it offers for understanding the Sun’s complex behaviour.

Aditya L1 Mission Overview

Aditya L1 Mission is set to be India’s first space-based observatory dedicated to studying the Sun. To achieve its scientific objectives, this spacecraft will be positioned in a halo orbit around Lagrangian Point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system. But what exactly is Lagrangian Point 1 (L1)?

Lagrangian Point 1 (L1)

Lagrangian Point 1, or L1, is one of five key points in the Earth-Sun system’s orbital plane. It is where the gravitational forces of Earth and the Sun perfectly balance the centripetal force required for a smaller object to remain in sync with them. The Aditya L1 spacecraft is set to be positioned at this unique vantage point to harness the benefits of reduced fuel consumption, enabling continuous and uninterrupted observations of the Sun.

The Launch Vehicle – PSLV Rocket

The mission will be propelled into space by the PSLV rocket, showcasing India’s technological prowess in space exploration.

The Primary Payload: Visible Line Emission Coronagraph (VLEC)

The heart of the Aditya L1 Mission is its primary payload, the Visible Line Emission Coronagraph (VLEC). This remarkable instrument, conceptualized and designed over 15 years, promises to revolutionize our understanding of the Sun. It will provide crucial data on the temperature, velocity, and density of the solar corona, shedding light on the processes responsible for heating this enigmatic region.

Advantages of L1 Placement

The decision to position the Aditya L1 spacecraft at Lagrangian Point 1 offers several advantages:

·     Continuous Solar Observation: Unlike ground-based observatories that may experience occultations and eclipses, the Aditya L1 Mission enjoys a continuous view of the Sun.

·         Uninterrupted Study of Solar Activities: This strategic positioning allows scientists to monitor solar activities without breaks, providing invaluable insights into the Sun’s behavior.

Scientific Objectives

The mission’s primary science objectives include:

·         Understanding Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration: By studying the corona, Aditya L1 aims to unlock the secrets behind the heating of this outer solar layer and the acceleration of solar wind.

·         Exploring Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Flares: The spacecraft will investigate the initiation of CMEs, flares, and near-Earth space weather, contributing to space weather prediction and mitigation.

·         Solar Atmosphere Dynamics: Aditya L1 seeks to enhance our comprehension of the coupling and dynamics of the solar atmosphere, offering a more comprehensive view of our Sun’s behavior.

·         Solar Wind Distribution and Temperature Anisotropy: The mission will provide data on the directional and energy anisotropy of solar wind through multi-directional observations.

Mission Uniqueness

The Aditya L1 Mission stands out in various ways:

·         Near-UV Imaging: It will capture the first-ever spatially resolved solar disk in the near-ultraviolet band, enabling more detailed observations.

·         CME Dynamics Close to the Solar Disk: Aditya L1 will offer critical insights into CME dynamics near the solar disk, providing a comprehensive understanding of these solar eruptions.

·         On-Board Intelligence: Equipped with advanced technology, the spacecraft can autonomously detect CMEs and solar flares, ensuring timely data collection.

·         Solar Wind Analysis: By analyzing the directional and energy anisotropy of solar wind, the mission will contribute significantly to our understanding of this crucial solar phenomenon.


In conclusion, the Aditya L1 Mission represents a giant leap for India in solar science and space exploration. With its cutting-edge technology and strategic placement at Lagrangian Point 1, it promises to unlock the secrets of the Sun, ultimately enhancing our understanding of space weather and the fundamental processes that govern our solar system.

To understand in detail of India’s lunar mission, Chandrayaan 3, click here

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ISRO, on July 14, 2023, launched Chandrayaan 3, its 3rd lunar mission.
India expects to become the fourth country after the erst while the USSR, USA, and China will do soft-landing on the Moon.
The cost of the mission is approximately around Rs 615 cr, considered the ISRO’s most difficult mission till date.
Chandrayaan 3 was launched on Launch Vehicle Mark-3, which previously launched the Chandrayaan 2.
Chandrayaan 3 is also a technological demonstrator to test landing and roving capabilities.
The Vikram Lander and Pragyaan rover has the same name as the lander and Rover of Chandrayaan 2 and has a similar design.

Soft landing
A soft landing means a safe landing. This implies that the space craft should be safe after its landing.
Soft landing is essential as the ISRO can take up crucial international space projects once it can prove its soft-landing capabilities to the world.

Previous Lunar missions of India

1. Chandrayaan- 1

  • Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008, from SDSC SHAR, Srihari Kota.
    • The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical, and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon.
    • The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, the USA, the UK, Germany, Sweden, and Bulgaria.
    • After completing all the primary mission objectives, the orbit was raised to 200 km in May 2009. Chandrayaan-1 played a crucial role in the discovery of water molecules on the Moon.
    • The satellite made more than 3400 orbits around the Moon, and the mission was concluded when communication with the spacecraft was lost on August 29, 2009.
  1. Chandrayaan – 2
  • A highly complex mission, representing a significant technological leap compared to the previous missions of ISRO, which brought together an orbiter, Lander, and Rover to explore the Moon’s South Pole.
    • This unique mission aims at studying not just one area of the Moon but all the areas combining the exosphere, the surface, and the sub-surface of the Moon in a single mission.
  • The launch of Chandrayaan 2 was successful. It completed a distance of 3,84,000 Km from Earth to Mars.
    • However, upon landing, despite being only half a km away from the surface of the Moon, it could not soft land due to a software glitch.
    • The plan was to study the Moon’s surface for 14 days and send the information using the Vikram Rover.
    • However, the mission was left uncompleted due to the failure of communication devices.

Mission objectives of Chandrayaan-3 are:
1. To demonstrate Safe and Soft Landing on Lunar Surface
2. To demonstrate Rover roving on the moon and
3. To conduct in-situ scientific experiments.

Significance of Chandrayaan 3
• The primary objective of Chandrayaan 3 is to demonstrate the engineering and capability behind landing a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
• The mission will make ISRO ready to prepare for a lander for Mars.
• Also, the mission is significant for the upcoming Indo-Japanese mission to the Lunar south pole.

Learn more about India’s tryst with the moon at Amrita IAS Academy’s YouTube Channel 

Importance of its landing location
• Earth is tidally locked to the Moon. This implies that only one side of the Moon is always visible to the Earth. 41% of the Moon remains hidden from the Earth.
• Similarly, there are large craters on the South pole of the Moon where sunlight has not reached for billions of years.
• By studying these craters, we can get important information about the origins of our solar system.
• It is often believed that water may be hidden in these craters.
• Also, there is a presence of hydrogen, methane, ammonia, sodium, silver, and mercury; This location becomes an important center for upcoming solar missions.

Improvements from chandrayaan 2 to chandrayaan 3

  1. Payload
    • The payload of Chandrayaan 2 was a complex one. It had three components – A lander, a Rover, and an orbiter. Also, the orbiter had completed its mission.
    • The payload of Chandrayaan 3 is much more simplified. It only has a rover and a lander.
  2. Powerful lander
  • The legs of the lander have been made much more robust compared to the previous version. Thus, it can better resist the impact of landing and survive it.
  1. Engine capacity
    • The engine of Chandrayaan 2 was not powerful enough to slow down in time for landing, causing it to fall about 750 km off the intended spot.
    • Now the engine capacity of its lander has increased. At the same time, a hazardous detection system has also been added to it.
    4. Instruments
    • Chandrayaan 3 has a Propulsion Module, which will work from Earth orbit to Moon orbit. It carries one payload known as SHAPE, which stands for Spectro Polarimeter of Habitable Planet Earth.
    • It will read the Earth’s data and use it to find habitable exoplanets outside our solar system.
  2. Launch Vehicle
    • Launch Vehicle Mark 3 can carry 30% more weight than our 1st GSLV Mark 2 Launch Vehicle.
    • The success of this launch vehicle is essential for India as this will prepare ISRO to send heavier payloads into space and demonstrate our capabilities to the world.
  1. Cost
    • Chandraayan 2 was launched for approximately ₹ 870 cr. At the same time, the total budget of Chandrayaan 3 will be approximately around ₹615 cr.
  2. Payloads of Chandrayaan 3
  3. Lander payloads
    • Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) – To measure the thermal conductivity and temperature
    • Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) – For measuring the seismicity around the landing site
    • Langmuir Probe (LP) – To estimate the plasma density and its variations. A passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA is accommodated for lunar laser ranging studies.
    • RAMBHA – Vikram lander Consists of RAMBHA, which will study the ionosphere and wispy atmosphere above the Moon.
  4. Rover payloads
    • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) – for deriving the elemental composition in the vicinity of landing site.

Challenges –

Absence of solar power when Lunar night begins
• Lander and Rover require solar power to function.
• After the landing, the expected lifetime of the mission will be around 14 days.
• After 14 days, when the lunar night begins, there is no atmosphere on the Moon to redistribute heat on the surface. Therefore, the temperature range drops from 120 degrees Celsius to -120 degrees Celsius once the sun sets.
• Lander and Rover cannot withstand this cold without solar power to keep them warm.

• The ability to make a soft landing on a planetary body is a crucial technology which can impact ISRO’s ability to carry out, or participate in, other scientific missions to the moon.
• The US Artemis programme significantly expands the scale of future exploration.
• In the future, there is a likelihood of discontinuing the International Space Station, leading several nations, including the US, to explore the construction of more permanent structures on the lunar surface.
• India aspires to become a significant partner in these endeavors.

Get the detailed note on Indian’s Lunar Missions on our Telegram channel 

Refer the Telegram and YouTube channel of Amrita IAS to access our exclusive notes and tutorial videos.

How to face the Preliminary Examination with confidence? -A complete solution by the known psychiatrist Dr. ARUN B NAIR

UPSC Civil Service is the most prestigious exam that gets attended by millions of aspirantsand is conducted throughout the year. This exam that has 3 stages including the Prelims, Mains and the Personality test is indeed a difficult one, but not that hard nut to crack.

The core of this year long preparation is of course the time management which has to be given a lot of importance. Rather than any other competitive exams, the Civil Service Examination is not about simply by hearting the given facts and learning it without any clear cut vision.

Learning is the process of imbibing new information, analyzing it and storing it in your brain and utilizing it appropriately according to the situation. Learning involves 5 steps that include:

  1. Relaxation
  2. Concentration
  3. Memory
  4. Presentation of the information
  5. Analysis


Relaxation is one of the important techniques that one should adopt to make the learning easy. Imagine being tensed at the time of learning and trying to recall what you’ve studied, comes as half baked bread. So, the best way to adopt this is the 1:4:2 method.

For this,

  • You have to sit straight on a chair, and inhale forcefully and hold it for 4 seconds and then exhale it for 2 seconds.
  • Practice this 4 times each, soon after you are awake, followed by doing it in the morning before you are set to study and then in the evening and finally at night before bed.

This method regulates the autonomous nervous system (ANS) that improves the blood flow in the heart, lungs and blood vessels.


There comes a common issue where you try to open the book and your mind wanders without any consideration. To stay focused becomes a hard task to cope up with. There can be a lot of factors that distract you which includes the anxiety issues, past memories and even various sounds and objects. Once you become out of focus, you lack the concentration and energy to complete a particular task and thus drains away your confidence.

Mindful breathing is a perfect method to bring back your ability to concentrate effectively on your studies for even a long duration of time.

Mindfulness is a moment to non judgmental awareness and acceptance of the present after detaching yourself from all your past experiences, events, emotions and the future concerns.

For this,

  • Sit straight with your left palm on your chest and the right palm on your stomach.
  • Breathe normally and focus your attention on breathing.
  • Follow the flow of the air that you respire and feel the vibration too.
  • If get distracted, redirect it to breathing.
  • Do this for about 15 minutes each day with a timer or not and soon after that vigorously rub your palm and place it on your closed eyes and take it off once your palm becomes cold.

To focus for 15 minutes straight is indeed a difficult task, but slowly can come to the track even if you get distracted in between.


Memory is all about assimilating internalizing and storing it properly. When comes to Prelims Mains and Personality test, the pattern of memory becomes different and requires special skill to master each level of the exam. There are 3 types of memory: Visual memory, Verbal memory and Kinetic memory.

Visual memory describes the relationship between perceptual processing and the encodingstorage and retrieval of the resulting neural representations. It can be brought it into practice by:

  • Creating a story out of the words that you need to memorize in the order.
  • Mind mapping with the help of spider knob where you use a circle in which the important topic is written and note down the related points with the help of spikes around that circle. Memorize it each day with a single glance.
  • Chart making also is an effective method to improve visual memory that can be stuck on walls with the important topics.

Verbal memory is the ability to remember what you read or hear. Reading out loud what you need to learn or participating in peer group studies even let you have a very sharp memory.


The exam gets well attended only when you present the information required for the asked question in an appropriate manner. Although Prelims is an objective type of exam where you have to correctly choose among the multiple choices given, it is much necessary to give importance to the presentation of the information when comes to Mains and Personality test.

Mains exam requires explanation for the questions that are being asked with the correct points within the time limit and marks.

At same time, for the personality test, to convince the interview board with the analytical ability, state of mind, judgment, composure and ability to logical learning from available information with flexibility of mind requires a lot of practice. To remember a bunch of information and use it at the right place is of course a tough row to hoe, but is possible through constant practice.

When comes to answering for Prelims:

  • Filter out the easy questions and try to answer them first, followed by the little difficult questions and then the most difficult questions at last.
  • If it becomes difficult to recall the right answer, try to calm your mind, close your eyes and then remember the topic that was difficult for you to memorize.


The best way to succeed in Prelims exam is to do several mock test papers to assess your preparation and analyze it thoroughly to know your weak point. Once you take the mock test, note down the questions that went wrong and also read the topic that comes under that specific question by referring the sources. Taking mock tests also helps to identify the topic which has to be given more importance same as the way you analyze the previous Prelims question papers too.

18 and 15 questions of Amrita IAS Academy’s Mains Test Series have appeared in UPSC exam 2021 and 2022 respectively, giving students a distinct advantage. Check out the questions  here 

In general, mugging up the facts given according to the syllabus or studying at the best IAS Academy won’t help you succeed in UPSC 2023. There comes a situation where you have to deal with a lot of pressure, both mentally and physically and may find it even tiring along the journey. It becomes much necessary to hold yourself together to go through all these challenges and overcome it all to be successful at the end.

Besides following the preparation process, it will be much better if good habits are brought in the daily routine that will in turn benefit the speed of the preparation and make it effectively. Some of them like:

  • Continuous sleep for 6 hours to exfoliate you to maintain a peaceful mind by disposing all the unwanted thoughts can benefit the preparation throughout.
  • At the same time, make it a habit to workout daily for about 45 minutes in the evening followed by a cold shower.
  • Restrict the usage of mobile phone and spent not more than an hour on Social Medias only if it is beneficial for your preparation.
  • Practice digital detoxification by keeping aside the phone 1 hour before the bed.
  • Take proper food at the morning and at noon followed by a light dinner.
  • Drink 15 glasses of water that includes 5 glasses of water containing electrolytes.

Crack UPSC CSE 2023 Amrita IAS Academy Trivandrum, by practicing the tips shared by known Psychiatrist Dr. Arun B. Nair. Check out the words of the students on how the session helped them manage stress and prioritise their mental health.

Check out.

ask questions, FAQ, what where why who


  1. How many seats are available in a year after qualifying CS examination, and how many IAS/IPS posts will be allotted?

Although the number of vacancies expected is around 980, it can vary throughout the year.  Usually, the expected seats will be divided among the reserved categories, i.e., 34 vacancies will be reserved for the PH category, 14 vacancies will be reserved for LDCP, 13 vacancies for HI, and seven vacancies for B/LV.

 As per the rules, the government can recruit only 180 IAS officers and 200 IPS officers every year through the Civil Services Examination (CSE).

  1. How are services being allotted for UPSC?

Every year lakhs of aspirants appear for the exam, of which only a few hundred are selected and appointed to the services.  These services are allocated to the officers based on their ranks, reserved category, and the vacancies available in that particular year.

  1. How many years should one prepare for the Civil Service exam?

A dedicated soul shall keep aside only a year for the preparation, which is enough and more.  After all, a question like this seems to be a personal one because the time taken to complete a certain task depends on one’s caliber.  Less surprisingly, there have been candidates who would have done it in 6 months.  So, in general, it solely depends on the aspirants.

  1. Is English mandatory/ High Command in the language required?

The English language becomes compulsory when it comes to the qualifying paper in the Mains Examination ‘Paper B’ that too, at only the matriculation level.  This is because you must know at least the functional level of the English language so that it can help you connect with the people and other officials if you are posted in any remote part of the country.  The fact is that  IAS is an All-India service, and after your selection, you can be posted in any part of the country.  Although Hindi is the largest spoken language in the country, it is not a very widely spread language to date, and for that matter, neither is any other language.  On the other hand, despite being spoken by a very small portion of the Indian population, English is the most thinly spread language in the country.  So, in that context and at that level, only UPSC likes to see your proficiency in English.

  1. Can the Exam be written in Malayalam or any Regional Language?

You can appear for the civil service exam in any regional language mentioned in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution.  It came into existence in the year 2013, as per the statement made by Minister for Personnel and Training V. Narayanasamy in parliament.  And at the same time, you can choose the same language to attend the UPSC interview.

  1. Is it required to prepare for 12-14 hours a day?

The UPSC civil services exam is considered one of the country’s toughest exams.  Because of this, many people recommend studying for about 15 hours per day during the exam preparation time.  Many aspirants wonder how many hours of study are required to clear this demanding exam.  Some aspirants claim to study for 15-16 hours daily while preparing for the UPSC exam.  And there are others who clear the exam by studying just for 6-7 hours a day.

Thus, there is no perfect answer to this question, and the candidates should decide the number of hours of studies per day considering their capabilities and requirements.  During the initial days of their preparation, some candidates start by studying for more than 12 hours a day.  They continue this for about a week, maybe 10 days.  After this time, they find it tiring to continue with this routine, and gradually, the intensity of their studies wanes off along with their initial enthusiasm.  This is because it is physically very demanding to sit for hours on an end and study.  Remember that the exam is long drawn, and this process shall be enjoyed.

  1. Why is the Syllabus So Vast?

UPSC CSE exam is one of the most coveted exams conducted in India.  It is even said that it is among the world’s hardest due to its uncertainty and oceanic syllabus.  It is certainly true that the competition is fierce and the syllabus is vast, so candidates are supposed to enhance their knowledge and develop administrative traits.  What makes this particular exam different from other competitive exams is the diversity that it provides in its syllabus since it demands more determination and long study hours.  Remember, the role of an administrator is not just limited to a particular field; thus, they require basic knowledge in almost every subject.

  1. Why is it called one of the toughest examinations in the World?

There are many myths revolving around the UPSC Civil Services Exam.  One among them is that the civil services exam is the toughest of all, although that is not true.  Many aspirants crack this exam each year, and some clear it on their first attempt.  It all depends on how you prepare and avoid mistakes during your preparation.  Moreover, with the right guidance and preparation, one can crack this examination very easily.  A bulky syllabus, rigid pattern, fewer vacancies compared to the candidates that appear for this exam, etc., makes it a demanding one, but it is not at all a hard nut to crack.  And obviously when 100,000 candidates compete for over 1000 posts, it can be hard but, again, not impossible to crack.

  1. Why are many aspirants not clearing it on the first attempt?

Lakhs of aspirants take up the UPSC civil services exams in our country.  Some clear the prelims and do not cross over the mains bridge.  A few leap over the mains but stumble at the UPSC board interview.

While giving your first attempt, several reasons may lead you to get stuck and pull away from getting into the final rank list.  One among them is that they fail to understand the exam and the UPSC syllabus.  Sometimes they get misguided and get diverted from the actual mode of preparation.  Following the correct booklist to cover the particular subjects is also an important factor in scoring, or it will be like covering everything under the sun and failing at the attempt.

  There can be several reasons for not getting it on your first strike, but there have been candidates who have done it on their first attempt.

  1. Why the majority of the aspirants are failing?

The reasons are very clear when it comes to why many of the aspirants fail to clear.  It is a much attention-seeking part when it comes to preparation so that aspirants can be careful and not try to repeat the mistakes.

Let us label them under short subheadings and the following includes:

  1. Fear

The UPSC exam is known for its vast syllabus to cover and diverse subjects to learn, and this competition makes the aspirants get bewildered and burdened with fear.  Their fear clouds their focus, and makes errors in judgment.  Fear of failure stifles them into inaction.  Even if written exams are cleared, people fear facing the board interview.

  1. Overconfidence

Some academically brilliant students also fail to crack the UPSC civil services.  For example, an engineering student can ignore CSAT preparation for UPSC thinking he/she knows it all, and pays the price for being arrogant.  Remember that knowledge is never constant and can always be added upon.

  1. Lack of strategy in the IAS preparation

Too many aspirants jump onto the CIVIL SERVICE bandwagon without any plan or idea of how tough and taxing its preparation can be.  They study without a proper strategy for the subjects.  Clearing the IAS exams requires a proper plan, including USPC-specific preparation for all the subjects.  A lack of direction in the approach would mean not being able to complete the syllabus on time.

  1. Lack of revision

UPSC civil services preparation takes up almost a year.  It is impossible to remember everything if you do not revise periodically.

  1. Poor grip over the UPSC syllabus

The UPSC sticks to the syllabus, and even the current affairs questions are related to it, so it is much necessary to know the whole exam and syllabus better.

  1. Panic during the exams

Exam fear is a genuine problem, as even the most prepared candidates falter because of the perceived enormity of the situation.  Panic fogs your mind, and you end up unable to think and recall, thus faring badly in the exams.

  1. Answer the questions asked

A common mistake made by the aspirants is not to read the question properly and end up answering unnecessary things and ignoring what is really asked.

  1. Writing practice/mock tests

Some candidates fail because they do not practice answering question papers.  This is a fatal mistake as you will never learn to time your answers and not know the pattern of the question papers.

  1. Reading from too many sources

Gather all the material to study first and then stick to them.  Except for current affairs, avoid going on collecting material for other subjects.  This only confuses and frustrates you.

  1. Lack of time management and study plan

Many candidates fail because they do not follow good time management techniques.

  1. Choosing the wrong optional subject

This is also a cause of failure in the IAS mains.  Most candidates, for different reasons, choose the optional subjects ill-suited to their interests and knowledge.  This leads to disastrous results in the exams ultimately.

  1. Attitude

Last but not least, many aspirants fail to make it because of their reluctance to give it all.  Cracking the UPSC civil services requires dedicated preparation throughout.  This is not for the faint-hearted or languid ones.

  1. Out of the Prelims & Mains, which one is tougher?

UPSC Prelims and Mains overlap with each other in terms of topics.  The major difference is that Mains requires a lot of analytical thinking and writing skills, while prelims is only bound to be on MCQ type of questions.  The prelims and mains must be attempted within the limited time given.  However, comparatively, regarding time management, the mains exam requires more practice since it includes answer writing rather than choosing from multiple choice.

  1. Is it possible to do self Preparation without coaching? Is Coaching Mandatory?

A common question UPSC aspirants ask before the exam preparation is, “Should I join a coaching class or study by myself for the exam?” There is no point pondering over this for days and wasting time that you could use for studying.  There is no rule that you must attend coaching classes to clear the exam.  If you have certain ‘tools’ you can crack the mother of all exams in the country.  All it takes is a proper strategy and dedication on your part.  There are several benefits when it comes to self-preparation, such as:

  • You know your strengths and weaknesses and can set up your own pace of study.
  • Go for self-study if you are the disciplined type. Clearing the UPSC exam requires single-minded focus and hard work.  If you have these qualities, you don’t need any external coaching.
  • The self-study might also work out for you if you are a working professional. Read how to crack the exam while working.
  • You have all the material you need from the internet.

However, coaching offers certain advantages.  Only the immensely disciplined can pull it off.  For other ‘mortals’, attending coaching can certainly boost your preparation.

  • You will have access to experts’ lectures and opinions, which go a long way in shaping your knowledge.
  • Your current affairs preparation for the exam will benefit from taking guidance from the experts.
  1. How should one prepare for UPSC CIVIL SERVICE EXAM if planning to start from College 1st year?

The eligibility for the exam is 21 years and graduation in any subject.  You should also take note that final-year students can apply for Prelims.  Many candidates miss this early opportunity and have come into the UPSC Civil Service Exam preparation field lately.  This is clearly reflected in the average age of candidates entering the final UPSC CSE rank list, which is 28 years.

If you start early, that will give you a lot many advantages.  And we have no doubts that aspirants who start early can clear the exam without compromising the thrill and happiness of campus life.  But for that, the right strategy and study plan are necessary.

Unlike many other aspirants who can dedicate a full year to UPSC preparation, those who prepare parallel while in college will have time constraints.  So what is more important is your ability to prioritize things.  Do only what is extremely important.

Once you decide on IAS/IPS as your career goal, buy the most necessary books for UPSC CSE preparation.  To begin with, below are the books you should start with.

  • NCERT Books – Hard copy or soft copy
  • Polity – by Laxmikanth
  • Economics – by Ramesh Singh
  • History – By Bipan Chandra

Also, ensure you do not compromise your newspaper reading, irrespective of the time constraints.  It can be either  The Hindu or Indian Express for quality articles.  Give importance to editorials and op-ed articles.

In UPSC CSE Mains, the speed of writing is very important.  Aspirants just out of college will have a big advantage here as they are not out of touch with pen and paper compared to working professionals.  Take maximum leverage on this.  Participate in essay competitions in your college.  Write letters to editors of famous newspapers.

When it comes to peer groups at college, take advantage of the long conversations and debates that are all part of college life.  Believe us; peer learning is one of the most important aspects which help most of the aspirants in the exam.  Build groups right from the college.

You can also try to finish the optional subject during semester breaks during college so that they can concentrate on General Studies (GS) and current affairs after graduation.

If time permits, either finish the optional subject or the entire set of NCERTs from class 6-12.  Try to refer to the UPSC toppers interviews for the latest tips from toppers.  This would keep you motivated.

  1. Is it required to study everything under the Sun?

Usually, anybody who tries to approach this particular exam normally carries a myth about this exam, cover everything under the sun or a misunderstanding that he/she holds this position should have deep knowledge about every topic.  Well, that is something impossible, and to promise that this fact is true to the core, even the UPSC has given a structured syllabus for prelims, mains, and the final personality test basis on which the question will be asked.

  1. What are the two basic things one aspirant should not ignore?

The two basic things that one aspirant should never ignore is to understand the syllabus of the exam thoroughly and to get to know about the exam pattern by going through the previous year’s question papers for both the prelims and the mains.

  1. How to keep the Momentum Positive?

Investing a year, completely, or along with a profession to crack the Civil service examination carried out through a year-long process isn’t that easy.  After all, the ultimate result matters for others rather than the challenges one might face throughout the journey.

Try to maintain a positive momentum by following some of the tips given below:

  • Cut yourself off from negative people. Do not be surrounded by people, whether friends or relatives, who are constantly telling you how difficult this exam is.  Once you cut off from them, you will be in a more positive frame of mind.
  • Start doing one physical activity for at least an hour daily during your preparation. Exercise and physical activity keep physical fitness intact, and your mind becomes positive.
  • Have a plan in place. It is only when you do not have a plan for the month, the day, or even the hour that you worry.  Because your course is incomplete, preparation is not in the right direction, etc., your mind finds it better to indulge in negative thoughts.  But when you have a proper plan as to what you are going to study today, then even when you have negative thoughts, you tend to bounce back and start studying.
  • Try to develop some minor hobbies that don’t interfere with your preparation and, at the same time, can save you when you get exhausted while preparing.
  • Talk to a friend or your sibling whenever you feel negative. Sharing helps you to come out of the spiral nature of these thoughts.
  • Keep in mind the other options as well. If you are one of those who worry because you have not thought of any other option and feel that if you do not clear this exam, you will be jobless, keep other options open as well.  This will help you feel more relaxed and concentrated.
  • Your preparation is not a waste of time. You would possibly have learnt much more than you have till now in your life, so you must think of it as an investment in your own self.
  • Do not confine yourself in a small room for long study hours. Allow yourself an occasional movie or outing once you have completed the required portion of the week’s syllabus.
  • Watch some motivational videos.
  • Do not overindulge on social media; if possible, keep out.

 So, in general, the idea is to do everything you can do to keep yourself motivated and positive so that you can give your best to the Exam.

  1. What are all the qualities one aspirant should have?

One of the benefits that this exam has is that while you embark on this journey, you will witness certain changes in your personality as time goes by.  The exam is not just about being fiercely competitive, reading, and learning; it is often a path of self-discovery.

At the same time, it is inevitable to hold up certain qualities while wearing the tagline of a UPSC aspirant.  Some of them include the following:


You are preparing for UPSC Civil Services Exam, and you know the path is tough and difficult.  If you are not comfortable or not preparing out of your own will and interest, it will not do you any good.  So, try to be honest with yourself.  If you are not honest with yourself, you will not be able to crack this exam, as every test will let you see your weakness, and you may ignore this warning, eventually knocking you down.

Again, When you become an officer, this is one quality that you cannot ignore if you want to serve the people and solve their problems.

Inquisitiveness                                                                        In the current trend of analytical questions in the UPSC exam, you must be inquisitive.  Being inquisitive means being ready to dig deeper about any topic of relevance you come across during your preparation.

Grasping power

You should develop a good grasping power.  Whatever subject you are reading, you should be able to understand the topics quickly. At the same time, you should also know how to utilize that information during the examination.

Read and make it a habit.

A UPSC aspirant should love reading regardless of the subject.  There are plenty of novels, magazines, and content on the internet.  Keep some time to just read about related things but not the standard books.  Read a lot. It will help you give a different perspective, develop your analytical ability, improve your language and provide you with enough content to tackle GS and Essay Paper.


 UPSC preparation is one of the hardest journeys, and you are brave to take this risk.  Even if you want to crack it on your first attempt, you need over a year to prepare and another year to complete the examination process (Prelims, Mains, and Interview).

If you qualify for prelims and cannot clear mains or the other way round or crack the interview, you will have to reappear again for this exam from scratch, i.e., prelims.  So you should be persistent and able to continue with IAS exam preparation for 3 – 5 years without losing your commitment to the exam.

Writing Ability

You know the final hurdle is the Mains exam, and it is a subjective exam.  You have to write your answer to convey your understanding of the questions.  So developing good writing skill is synonymous with your exam success, and writing skill is not something people are born with.  You can master the skill with daily practice.

Dedication                                                                                If you want to win the marathon race, you should practice regularly to win on D-day.  The same applies to this exam preparation; it is also like a marathon race (Prelims, Mains, and Interviews). To clear this exam, you should prepare sincerely on a daily basis to succeed.  Success never comes easily; you have to work for it.

Communication Skill

This is again an important trait that will help you as an officer and in general in any walks of life.  If you have good communication skills, you can reach heights. Pay attention to this; if you have trouble speaking in front of people and need to improve at communicating your ideas, work on it.  After all, if you pass the mains and your communication skill becomes a bottleneck in your success, you will regret the most.

Self Belief

First, Believe in yourself before the world believes you.                                    If you think you can, you can!

  1. What should be the probable Strategy for Prelims?

A well-curated strategy can help the aspirants in revising and remembering the facts until the exam day.  Every student has their own approach to preparing, but only the most effective plan will help an aspirant sail through the exam.  The most important aspect of the preparation is dedication and consistency.  Hence, stick to the plans no matter what.

Newspaper reading

Current affairs is the most important aspect of the prelims exam.  Newspapers help to cover these topics extensively.  However, reading a newspaper can consume a lot of time. Hence selective reading is recommended at this stage.  It is advisable not to spend more than one hour on newspaper reading.  Pay extra attention to the national, international, science and technology, and editorial sections.

Current affairs revision

Besides newspapers and magazines, online portals are important sources for preparing current affairs.  For UPSC prelims, it is advisable to read current affairs of the past 24 months.  So candidates should revise their current affairs notes, if prepared, or refer to notes available online for two hours every day. 

Refer the YouTube channel of Amrita IAS to access Daily Current Affairs and tutorial videos.

Static subjects revision approach

The static syllabus is the only predictable thing about this exam.  But the syllabus is extensive, and a consolidated approach should be followed to revise each subject.  With four months at disposal, candidates should revise all the subjects one month before exams.  Constructing a daily, weekly, and monthly plan to cover all the subjects is important.

Mock tests and previous year’s papers

Solving mock papers is one of the finest ways to shed exam fear and understand the prelims exam pattern.  Reading and learning are part of the UPSC exam preparation, and solving questions based on those topics is another.

Hence, it is advisable for students to solve as many mock tests as possible before the exam.  It may be possible to not score well in the initial few days, but the score will improve eventually.  Candidates should also refer to previous years’ papers to understand the exam pattern.  It can help understand the questions that can be framed from a particular topic.

Refer the Telegram channel of Amrita IAS to access Previous Years’ Question Papers and Exclusive Classroom Lecture Notes.

  1. What should be the probable Strategy for Mains?

UPSC CSE Prelims is the first elimination round of the Civil Services Examination.  After you have qualified for the first hurdle of this coveted exam, the most crucial phase of your preparation journey is for UPSC Mains.  Since UPSC CSE Prelims is qualifying in nature, your score in that round will not determine your final selection.  It is the Mains exam whose score will be extremely crucial in determining your selection and rank.

  1. Make A Detailed Study Plan For UPSC Mains Strategy

Once you have relaxed completely, come out of that zone, and devise a detailed study plan for your mains preparation.  As you might already know, UPSC Mains consists of 9 theory papers, of which two are qualifying language papers, 2 are your optional subject papers, 1 is an essay paper, and the other four are general studies papers.  So, you should have a clear-cut strategy on how to go about revising each of the subjects and preparing the ones you have not even started yet.

Try to schedule the time for each paper since you will be given around 2 – 3 months to revise the whole mains syllabus. And here is what you can do:

  • Have a monthly goal, weekly goal, and daily goal. Stick to that and ensure that you complete each goal.  Make small targets so that they seem achievable.
  • Even if your preparation gets disturbed for 1-2 days, do not wreck the whole plan; divide the portions you have missed across the week.
  • Always keep 2 hours for revising what you have read daily. Also, keep the weekends free for answer writing practice and revising what you have learned in the week.
  1. Enhance Your Answer Writing Practice

Since the Mains paper is descriptive in nature, it is important that you give due time to answer writing in your UPSC Mains Preparation strategy.  Try to summarize whatever you read in your own words at the end of the day.  Dedicate an hour each day to practice answer writing.  Get your answers evaluated by your mentors or seniors to get a fair idea of where you stand.  Do not fret about writing bad answers in the beginning.  Practice does make one perfect; hence practice answer writing as much as you can.

  1. Give Regular Mock Tests.

Mock tests are important because they give you an exam feel and prepare you to write your best answers in a stressful-exam situation.  Hence, never take mocks for granted.  Think of it as an opportunity to understand the answer-writing process and to write brief suitable answers considering the demand of the questions.

Remember, the mantra to the best UPSC Mains Strategy is complete with sharing the best answer-writing practices.

  1. What should be the probable Strategy for PTT?

The most important thing to know about an interview is that it is not always a question-answer session and that the Board members are looking for different aspects of one’s personality.  Always remember that the interview is a natural, purposeful conversation, not a cross-examination.

 There is not any structured syllabus given for this level of the exam.  So, all you have to remember is to have deep knowledge about yourself, your interests, and your hobbies.  Be true enough to the answers you provide for the general questions they ask, without any fear and with confidence.

 For that, you have to build self-confidence, which can be achieved by speaking to yourself in front of the mirror.

  1. Will online coaching be effective?

Online coaching is nowadays a growing trend in preparing for civil services examination.  This has become especially true since the pandemic began.

  • Online coaching is cost-effective for those who find it unaffordable with the fees for offline classes and is also flexible at the same time.
  • It is even possible to have access to many quality courses and study materials at competitive rates online.
  • Another benefit is that every student can view lectures at his/her own pace.  Instead of being one in a physical classroom of hundreds, an aspirant can proceed with his preparation at the speed of his choosing.
  • One may choose one’s pace of learning and time devoted to each section of the syllabus based on one’s comfort.

One of the limitations of online coaching is that:

  • It requires the aspirant to remain self-motivated throughout his preparation.
  • Aspirants who opt for online coaching often lack a support system from fellow aspirants and mentors.  It is, thus, important that the aspirant preparing online maintains a competitive spirit and inculcates self-discipline.
  • Often, online coaching misses the human touch that comes with teacher-to-student interaction in a physical classroom setting. Most online coaching platforms lack a human interface.

However, to get around this, some teachers provide personalized doubts-clearing facilities to online students.

To conclude, any coaching, whether classroom or online, is only one of the several inputs in a student’s preparation.  Success in this examination greatly depends on the candidate’s level of commitment, preparation strategy, and the extent of answer writing practice. 

  1. Why are writing skills very important for the UPSC mains exam?

Writing the UPSC exam or any other exam is about excellently presenting what you have learned.  Hence, writing skill is very crucial.  It often happens that some students are very good at learning and speaking, but when writing the same thing with a pen on paper, they fail.  Such students lack writing skills.  For cracking the UPSC exams on the first attempt, it is therefore very important that students should also work on polishing their writing skills.

The preliminary exam is objective. Hence it is easy to crack only based on your learning and knowledge.  But this is not the case in the UPSC Mains exam.  It is subjective; this means that students have to write and elaborate answers themselves instead of just picking the right option.  Answer writing practice is inevitable here to present your answer to the point within the limited time given.

Thousands of aspirants appear in this exam every year, and they all learn the same syllabus and popular books.  So, it is very important to stand out among the crowd; this is only possible when you write exceptionally well.

Your answers should be neat, systematically arranged, and exactly match the demand of the question.

Improve your answer writing skills with Amrita IAS Academy’s Mains Answer Writing Program (MAWP). Click here to register 

  1. What is being tested in the Prelims, Mains, and final personality test of the UPSC CIVIL SERVICE examination?

The preliminary exam is the first level to be cleared for the civil services examination, a screening test to get filtered among the lakhs of applicants who write this exam.  The marks that get scored here are not considered in the final mark list and involve multiple choice questions from the structured syllabus published by the UPSC that includes current affairs under the GS paper.  The second is the CSAT paper which tests the candidate’s analytical skills.

The mains exam is one of the crucial levels.  The exam is subjective, and you will have to answer the questions with limited words and limited time.  To write around 20-25 questions, with each answer demanding 200-250 words for the nine papers of the Mains exam, is, of course, demanding.  It is this ability of a candidate that is being analyzed by the UPSC and the presentation while ensuring that no filler sentences diverge from the topic at hand.

The personality test is the final level which also has a major role in deciding the final rank of each aspirant through their performance.  Here, the interview board members analyse the overall personality of the candidate and traits of the candidate like their confidence, honesty, intelligence, integrity, understanding of ground realities, and depth of understanding of various concepts.

  1. Why are people often saying the Civil Services exam is Analytical?

The CIVIL SERVICE exams are quite different and unique compared to other competitive exams and state service exams that one gives in his/her lifetime.  Its structured syllabus and exam pattern stand out, which is obviously not beyond belief to crack.  The basic things one should keep in mind before appearing for the exam is to understand the syllabus thoroughly and know the trend being followed in the exam.

Alone if you cover up the syllabus and appear for the exam, it is not necessary for you to crack the exam because unless you get to know what is the exact pattern followed by the UPSC in framing questions and the portions from the syllabus to be given more focus, it becomes an impossible task to crack.

This is where the analytical ability of an aspirant gets questioned.  Although the questions that can come for the exam, i.e., for both prelims and mains, are least predictable, analysing the questions that the UPSC repeatedly asks and the current affairs relevance can help us a lot.  Mugging up the whole syllabus is not going to work; instead, analysing each topic of each subject and preparing from the exam point of view will help you to excel.  Even the current affairs that you go through have to be analysed carefully so that you can expect a question from it if it has got relevance and also matches with any of the topics given in the syllabus.

  1. Why are people often saying the Civil Services exam is Unpredictable?

It is right that the syllabus for the exam is vast, and you are expected to learn and know about a lot of things, but still, if you observe close enough, you will find a pattern as to how to study and prepare for this particular exam.  It is unlike any other exam.

Observing the previous question papers and syllabus regularly throughout your preparation would make it somewhat predictable for you to the extent that you would soon have a hunch about how much you should prepare.  And remember, if it were unpredictable, many of the aspirants from the average academic background would not have made it.

You may not be able to pinpoint exactly which book or material the questions are being asked from, but there is a pattern in which one must study.  If you have been regular with the newspaper for at least a year before the preparation, you would have a fairly good idea of the important current affairs topic that can be asked in prelims and mains.  Also, after reading the newspaper for so long, one gets an idea of what news is important and what one needs to skip.  Also, this does not come all of a sudden but with constant practice.

  1. What is the ‘Surprise Element’ in the CSE?

CSE can confuse an aspirant with how to prepare and stick on throughout the journey by maintaining positive momentum.  But, surprisingly, however, you struggle with the preparation. A true aspirant will always achieve the result, and it has been proven every year.

The outer appearance of this exam tends to be rough and tough. However, the fact is, once you get into this journey of preparation, it becomes a part of your life, and you only give up once you get into the final rank list and get a ticket straight to LBSNAA.

Why Civil Service?

Just like how the Mauryan Empire established the centralization of rule by highly skilled superintendents or Adhyakshas who looked after various departments, in a largest democratic country like India, it is necessary for an elected government to appoint such highlly skilled people who are the actual makers of the Indian law and policy to strengthen the administrative capacity and to perform critical governmental functions.

Lord Cornwallis, who reformed, modernized, and rationalized the civil service, the “Steel Framework,” led to the modernity and progress of the country after independence.

Who can crack this examination?

Ultimately, it is not an impossible task and is not alone meant for the elitist category. If you can read the newspaper, get updated with what is happening around you, and get in to know the UPSC syllabus, then it is your cup of tea to crack this examination. However, there is a specific skill that we need to acquire to approach this exam and to reach this position which we will know when we start to prepare. We have the best examples of civil servants who were just ordinary people enthusiastic about learning and honest with their profession.


It takes a significant effort to hold a position in the final rank list. The journey begins to form 15 lakh applicants, among whom 10 lakh appear for the exam, 13000 clear the prelims and appear for the mains. Only 3000 get cleared through the mains and appear for the personality test. The final rank list contains 1000 candidates, among whom only the first 100 ranks get the IAS.

So, to reach from 15 lakh to the filtered 100 is indeed a challenging journey, but it is not out of the question.

CIVIL SERVICE aspirants and their value system?

Once you become a civil service officer, you know the difference between an ordinary citizen and a bureaucrat. Unfortunately, the difference is vast. You cannot expect a person who learns about the constitution, governance, history, geography, economy, daily current affairs, and much more to behave and think at a limited level.

She/he will have a highly intellectual way of thinking and viewpoint when approaching any situation. In our present scenario, where spirituality and religion are criticized, a bureaucrat gives equal importance to both according to what they have learnt. They are always centrist without getting biased to both left and right.

Prelims examination?

UPSC conducts the civil service examination at three levels throughout the year. It includes the PRELIMS followed by MAINS and then the PERSONALITY TEST.

Prelims are an objective examination with two separate papers to be cleared on the same day in 2 different sessions.

 1st paper is GENERAL STUDIES 1, which consists of 100 multiple choice questions to be solved within 2 hours. Each question carries two marks with a 1/3 negative mark for every wrong answer, totaling 200 marks. It consists of questions from a structured syllabus published by the commission that has history, geography, polity, etc., as well as the current affairs of the period.

2nd paper is the CIVIL SERVICES APTITUDE TEST (CSAT), consisting of 80 multiple-choice questions to be solved within 2 hours. Each question carries a 2.5 mark with a 1/3 negative mark for every wrong answer, so a total of 200 marks. It consists of questions about logical reasoning, analytical ability, general mental ability, comprehension, etc. This is a qualifying paper and requires only 33% of the total.

Mains examination?

        When prelims get cleared, the mains exam is entirely subjective and has nine papers to be answered in 3 hours each. An analytical approach to current affairs has to be brought here to score good marks. This includes 2 Qualifying papers, 1 Essay paper, 4 General Studies papers, and 2 Optional papers. 


Paper A: (One of the Indian languages to be selected by the candidate from the languages included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution).

Paper B: English

The papers on Indian languages and English (paper A and paper B) will be of matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature. The marks (300 each) obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.

Paper 1: Essay  (250 marks)

General Studies?

General studies include papers to be counted for merit. They are:

Paper 2: General Studies- I

(Indian heritage and culture, History and Geography of the world and the society.) (250 marks)

Paper 3: General Studies – II

(Governance, Polity, Social justice, and International relations.) (250 marks)

Paper 4: General Studies – III

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster management.) (250 marks)

Paper 5: General Studies – IV

(Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude.) (250 marks)

Then comes the two optional papers on the same subject that carry 250 marks each, which we can choose based on our interest in that particular subject since it requires a deep study and to be answered in precise and deep.

Mains examination and answer writing?

It becomes crucial how you manage to answer 20 questions in about 3 hours with limited words on a provided booklet. So, for the mains exam, you have around 9 min for each question in which you have to read the question, understand, and write and complete the answer. The skill to effectively present the answer within limited words and time is being judged here. The language need not be more sophisticated. It should be readable and simple as well.

Personality test?

The personality test is the final stage of the CIVIL SERVICES examination, where you get evaluated based on your character and mindset to become an officer. It is conducted in the UPSC office at Dholpur House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi.

It carries 275 marks, the largest total for each main exam paper, proving how important it is to build a character to become a civil servant rather than only gaining theoretical knowledge. The panel of 5 members will be judging you based on every aspect of your personality.

The mains exam (except the qualifying papers) and the personality test can be given in other languages included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. However, it will be good enough to use the English medium for the mains and the personality test because, during the interview, the opinion we convey may only reach the panel partially since it is mediated by a translator.

How to use social media?

 Social media, when used effectively, can be a beneficial tool to crack the exam since it provides numerous platforms to refer, share and learn. We have travelled a lot and reached an era where we are not only provided with the newspapers but even video lectures, live classes, UPSC previous year question papers from educational sites, mobile applications, and platforms to cast our opinion on what we study on behalf of the exam. The knowledge is at our fingertips. However, it is we who decide the way social media should be used. Rather than deactivating the accounts, it will be preferable to follow those beneficial for our preparation. 

Refer the Telegram and YouTube channel of Amrita IAS to access our exclusive notes and tutorial videos.

A message to the aspirants?

” You can’t cross the sea merely by standing and staring at the water.”

It is all about the effort and courage you take to complete this journey to have a new beginning where you become a ray of hope to the people who depends on you. When it comes to cracking the exam, it is all about determination and never giving up mentality. Whenever you get tired and have the urge to give up, remember why you’ve started!

Importance of having a study plan to crack the Civil Service Examination

“A goal without a plan is just a wish.”

The civil service examination, otherwise the most challenging examination in the country, requires a lot of commitment to crack. With a perfect strategy that should be created by every single aspirant, it becomes a smooth row to hoe.

  • Why do you need a study plan?
  • The exam competition exists among the country’s best minds, where around 8 to 10 lakh applications are received yearly. Among the 4 to 5 lakh aspirants who appear for the exam, only 10 to 15 thousand heads are screened through the prelims, which appear for the mains, and around 3000 get qualified for the personality test. The final rank list, topped by 800 candidates, has to appear between 100 and 150 for top all-India services.
  • The syllabus, which is a vast one, requires a perfect study plan to explore. Since the exam provides a structured syllabus, it becomes easy to handle and cover-up within the limited time, only when you properly know about the content and create a route map just like a voyager does to reach his destination.
  • Along with the knowledge you gain through this content, developing that particular skill that helps you easily deal with the questions is necessary. Moreover, there have been instances where you learn almost everything but need help to clear the exam. When it comes to prelims, the elimination skill is the one that helps to get the right option, and when it comes to mains, it is the analytical skill that articulates the ideas and explains an answer within the word limit.

Although these skills are not inbuilt, it has to be gained along with our preparation.

  • A single topic requiring a limited reference can make you wander with the facts and mislead you. With a perfect study plan, you come to know the topics to be covered and approach only from the exam perspective, saving your time and effort.
  • Even if you fail to clear on the first attempt for personal reasons, you get cleared by the next attempt only if you had a perfect strategy for the previous attempt.
  • Things to keep in mind while making a study plan:
  • Do not make an unrealistic study plan which becomes uneasy to follow and then drop in between. Analyze each of your calibers and make one that you can stick on with.
  • Do not make a rigid study plan which you frame for almost a year and then have to leave in between since you cannot follow.
  • Do not make an unbalanced study plan. Importance has to be given to both prelims and mains equally.
  • How to make a study plan?

You can make a study plan by pushing your limits only logically. While making one, consider the following factors too.

  • TIME: Although the preparation and the exam duration are long, the fact is that we have only limited time to cover up the portions. Considering ten months, eight months have to be invested to cover the syllabus and two months completely for revision.
  • SYLLABUS: The syllabus, as well as the previous questions, if analyzed carefully, we can conclude that there are several core subjects (POLITY, ECONOMY, HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, ETHICS) and non-core subjects (ENVIRONMENT, IR, SCIENCE&TECHNOLOGY, ART & CULTURE) from which questions come from.

Spend 25 days for each core subject; by 100 days, core subjects will be covered, and for non-core subjects, you can keep aside ten days per subject.

  • DAILY PLAN: Daily, keep aside 5 hrs for the core/non-core subject, 2 to 3 hrs for NCERTs, 3hrs for optional, and 2 hrs for current affairs. Revision has to be done daily or at the weekends. Even if you are taking classes for preparation, the time could be managed.

Normally, we, AMRITA IAS ACADEMY, used to interact with our students to structure a study plan according to their needs.

The policy here is to have a short-term strategy that leads you to accomplish a long-term one.

  • How to squeeze it?

Time management is a crucial factor here. Following the above, you can easily cover up and get thorough with the portions. However, when it comes to answer writing practices for both prelims and mains, you have to adjust and bring about 2 hrs from spending for current affairs and static portions. It can only be brought by strictly following the study plan and maintaining consistency.

The end result will always be great!




  • India holds the Presidency of the G20 from December 1, 2022 to November 30, 2023. The 43 Heads of Delegations- the largest ever in G20-will be participating in the final New Delhi Summit in September next year.


  • The G20 grouping was started in 1999 as aftermath of Asian Economic crisis, 1997 to mitigate further financial crisis.
  • The Group of Twenty (G20) is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries – Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States and the European Union.It has both developed and developing countries.
  • Till 2008 it was a summit of Financial ministers and Central Bank Governors, since 2008 it has become summit of Head of the states.
  • Initially it focused mainly on economic and financial stability, after 2008 it also focused on political issues.
  • 80% of Gross World Product and 75% of international trade takes through this.2/3rd of the population reside in these countries.
  • Since 2008, 17 summits have been concluded, the next to be concluded in India.
  • Apart from the 20 members there are invitees to the meeting – Spain is a permanent invitee.
  • Institutions like World Bank, IMF, FAO,World Trade Organization, World Health organization also take part in the meetings.
  • Groups like African Union and ASEAN will also take participation in G20 meetings.
  • Agreements of G20 doesn’t have legal backing but because of its economic and political significance it’s decisions can influence the policies of world countries.
  • Apart from The Head of the State, The Finance Ministers from these countries also meets. It also conducts many meetings like Y20(Youth affairs), W20(women), U20(urban administration), T20(think tank), C20(Civil Society) and L- 20(Trade Unions and Labourorganizations), B20(Business), S – 20(Science) and Startup 20 (to be launched by India).
  • TROIKA GROUP – group consisting of previous present and future presidents of G – 20 groups.
  • It is important wing of G20 to have a continuity in policies and decisions taken by previous chair and to pass on responsibilities to the next chair.
  • Presently Indonesia, India, Brazilforms the Troika group, Thus the Troika consist solely of developing countries and global south. This will provide it with the unique opportunity to look at developments from the perspective of the developing world.


  • The G20 consists of two parallel tracks
  1. Financial track
  • Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors discuss about the financial and economic aspects of G20 countries.
  1. Sherpa track
  • Every member countries appoint one Sherpa (representative of the government) to the G20. They are directly appointed by the head of the state.
  • They discuss both financial and political matters.
  • Engagement groups
  • Also called work stream which discuss about various issues


  • Implement sustainable development goals and digitize public infrastructure.

The contexts in which India take over the Presidency are:-

  • Global Pandemic
  • World is recovering from the pandemic still vaccines are not fully accessible by many countries.
  • Pandemic associated inflation, unemployment, inequalities etc.
  • Economic recovery
  • Taper Tantrum has affected developing countries by lowering investments.
  • Rate of inflation is high in majority of the countries.
  • Russia – Ukraine war
  • Disruption in global supply chains – in crude oil, fertilizers, food grains etc.
  • Climate change
  • Productivity in Primary sector decreasing
  • Internal migration within the country
  • Tendency of De – globalization
  • Polarization of countries into east and west, north and south

India can thus use this Presidency in the following ways

  1. India can fix the broader agendafor the global welfare by including some issues.
  • Global skill mapping – It enables you to assess each employee’s skill set and identify any potential areas to improve their skills.
  • De – politicization of global supply chains making supply chains ineffective to issues like wars.
  • Climate change aspect
  • Food and energy security
  • Green energy – include wind power, solar power, bio-energy (organic matter burned as a fuel) and hydroelectric, including tidal energy.
  • Disaster management
  • Tourism
  • Tax evasions by MNCs by shipping profits to tax haven countries
  • Geo – political conflicts
  • Denuclearization and de – weaponization.
  • Promotion of the new economic ideas through startups and gig – economy.
  • Sustainable development goals
  1. India would offer solutions to implement SDG’s, digital public infrastructure to the world, according to PM G20 presidency must be inclusive, ambitious and action oriented.
  2. While offering solutions to the global problems India can showcase its success and previous experiences in:
  • Sustainable development goals: In achieving SDGs India enhanced its renewable energy share to 40% of total energy mix and aspiring achieving 50% by 2030 and started global collaborations such as International solar alliance. Promotion of clean energy initiatives at domestic level such as Ujjwala scheme, Ethanol blending, promotion of EVs, renewable energy such as Green Hydrogen.
  • Digitalize public infrastructure: India utilized its Digital Infrastructure for empowerment of common man through initiatives such as financial inclusion, Digital transactions and online services.
  1. Vaccine diplomacy: During pandemic India showcased excellence in manufacturing indigenous vaccines, supply of vaccines to the developing and least developed countries through its vaccine diplomacy.
  2. India can leverage this platform by showcasing its administrative capabilities and ease of doing business practices to attract global investments.
  3. India’s heritage: Under its presidency India will conduct around 200 meetings across 50 different locations (Having cultural and heritage distinctiveness) this will create an opportunity to strengthen its soft power diplomacy.
  4. India can also use this to form cooperation between Multi National Institutions like WB, IMF and G20. Thus making the decisions taken at the G20 to get global acceptance.
  5. India can use this platform to highlight issues faced by India – maritime freedom, terrorism, border encroachment etc.; and also,reform issues in global level including role at IMF, WB, UNSC etc.
  6. Represent the developing world and the global south and thus become a global leader.



  • “VasudhaivaKutumbakam” or “One earth, One family, One future”
  • “India’s G20 Presidency will work to promote this universal sense of one-ness. Hence our theme – ‘One Earth, One Family, One Future’” – PMNarendra Modi


Why in news?

Recently, India’s first privately developed launch vehicle, Vikram-S, blasted off on its maiden flight from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Sriharikota. It was developed by a private startup Skyroot Aerospace under the guidance of ISRO.

VIKRAM-S: MISSION PRARAMBH- India’s First Private Space Launch

  • Prarambh is the mission’s name of Vikram-S, a single-stage suborbital space launch vehicle of Skyroot
  • It is India’s leading SpaceTech startup and a two-time national award-winning space launch vehicle company, with a mission to Open Space for
  • Prarambh means the beginning, signifying a new era for the private space sector in India and the first mission for
  • The synergy between Skyroot, ISRO, and the Space regulator IN-SPACe forms the bedrock of success for this
  • The company is designing three Vikram rockets that will use various solid and cryogenic fuels to carry between 290 kg and 560 kg payloads to sun-synchronous polar
    • Vikram-I can carry 480 kilograms of payload to Low Earth It will be powered by a Kalam engine.
    • Vikram-II is equipped to lift off with 595 kilograms of
    • Vikram-III can launch with 815 kg to 500 km Low Inclination


  • Vikram-S is a single-stage solid fuel rocket meant to test nearly 80 percent of all systems and processes before the launch of Vikram-1 scheduled for next
  • It is a single-stage sub-orbital launch vehicle, that carried three customer payloads, and helps test and validate technologies in the Vikram series space launch
  • Sub-orbital flights are those vehicles that are travelling slower than the orbital velocity, meaning it is fast enough to reach outer space but not fast enough to stay in an orbit around the
  • Vikram-S is powered by solid-fuelled propulsion, cutting-edge avionics, and an all-carbon fibre core
  • The Vikram-S will help test and validate the majority of the technologies in the Vikram series of orbital class space launch vehicles, including many sub-systems and
  • It carried three satellites, including one by SpaceKidz India called FunSat, parts of which were developed by school
  • It is a 6-meter gall, weighing 550 kg, and hits a peak altitude of 5 kilometers.
  • Peak velocity capability greater than MACH 5 [Hypersonic]


  • Privately built – It is the first privately built Indian rocket to make it to
  • Heralding a new era for India – Important milestone in India’s outer space journey where the space sector was opened up in 2020 to facilitate private sector
  • Quickest and most affordable ride to
  • Joined International groupings – Global participants such as Galactic Virginia, Space-X, and Blue Origin are the global private
  • Space tourism – India can also venture into space tourism and this is a first step in that
  • Symbol of change – It signals that the Indian space sector is undergoing a major transformation by roping in the private sector in its way of space exploration and
  • Joint exploration – Earlier, the space sector was considered the monopoly of the government, but now talented manpower available in the country could be used for joint
  • Tribute to Vikram Sarabhai – Launch vehicles are named ‘Vikram’ as a tribute to the founder of the Indian space programme and renowned scientist Vikram
  • It will incentivize many other private players to come forward and it would completely change the ecosystem of the space sector.


  • The Indian space program began with the establishment of the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962, with Sarabhai as Chairman.
  • As part of it, Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) was started near
  • The launch of the first US-made sounding rocket ‘Nike Apache’ from Thumba on

November 21, 1963, turned the initial steps for space sector developments.

  • In 1967, India started launching indigenously developed sounding rockets named Rohini from
  • The India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established in 1969, and the Department of Space was established in
  • The Aryabhata spacecraft was India’s first satellite which was completely designed and fabricated in India and launched by a Soviet Kosmos-3M rocket from Kapustin Yar on April 19,
  • From Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV), then to Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV), and now with Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geo- Stationery Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), the Indian space research program has achieved long strings of achievements in its long
  • In the initial phase, the development of the Vikas engine (a portmanteau from the initials of Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai), a family of liquid fuelled rocket engines added thrust to its successful
  • However, with the collapse of the USSR, international sanctions, and Russia’s refusal in transferring technology, India has for years been trying to develop its own cryogenic rocket engines that are designed to put heavier satellites into high
  • In 2014, India succeeded in launching indigenous cryogenic rockets with
  • After that the growth of ISRO was fascinating and keenly followed by global


  • With 1990 reforms, the country experienced a shift from a state-led economy to a state and private people-led
  • Commercialization of ISRO services – ISRO entered the lucrative industry of launching foreign payloads from Indian soil using its own rockets which would augment India’s forex
  • Presently, the global space industry is valued at 400 billion US dollars and is set to touch $1 trillion by 2040. While India’s share is 2% of the total value. i.e., 8 billion
  • The private sector has a big role to play to increase its
  • India needs to increase its total share in the space sector so that we can push the overall growth of the economy, create more job opportunities and also create technological solutions to various problems faced by the
  • Thus Private sector participation is necessary for making India a thriving space
  • At present, India is manufacturing GSLVs weighing around 640 tonnes from foreign-aided space research Nike Apache weighing just 760

Launch Vehicles developed by ISRO — GSLV, PSLV, and SSLV Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)

  • It is the smallest launch vehicle and weighs only 110
  • It is reported that the SSLV has a height of 34 meters and has three solid

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

  • It is the third-generation launch vehicle of It is the first Indian  launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.
  • PSLV is designed mainly to deliver the “earth-observation” or “remote-sensing” satellites with a lift-off mass of up  to  about  1750  Kg  to  Sun-Synchronous circular polar orbits of 600-900 Km
  • The vehicle successfully launched two spacecraft – Chandrayaan-1 in 2008 and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft in 2013 – that later sent to Moon and Mars

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)

  • GSLV is a space launch vehicle used to place satellites and other spacecraft into geosynchronous transfer
  • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark II (GSLV Mk II) is the largest launch vehicle developed by India, which is currently in
  • This fourth-generation launch vehicle is a three-stage vehicle with four liquid straps-on.
  • The indigenously developed cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS), which is flight proven, forms the third stage of GSLV Mk


  • Communication Satellites – The INSAT system provides services such as telecommunications, satellite newsgathering, information related to weather forecasting & disaster warning,
  • Earth Observation Satellites – Satellites  like  Cartosat-2  Series,  RESOURCESAT- 2A, etc. provide information covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development,
  • Remote sensing – Exploration of various mineral and natural resources has been possible through remote
  • Meteorological services – It provides  information  about  monsoons,  floods, cyclonic activities,
  • Disaster management – Weather prediction helps in mitigating the cyclone, eliminating or having very minimal
  • Spread of education – Expertise in education has been made possible with the help of the INSAT-3D


  • Strategic applications – Providing the utilities like positioning, navigation, and timing E.g. – Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System  (IRNSS),  GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN)


  1. The whole technologies and applications of space technologies were confined under one umbrella called
  2. Lack of an integrated space policy – India does have some sector-specific policies, such as those related to satellite communications and remote sensing
  3. Industry is unsatisfied, complaining that the policies do not detail how the government will partner with commercial
  4. Though private parties are interested, a conducive ecosystem is not yet developed to capitalize on the know-how of private
  5. Working in silos – ISRO is around 70%–80% reliant on private sector contractors for components and services such as Larsen & Toubro, Walchandnagar Industries, and Godrej, with Tata Aerospace gaining


  • Ever-growing demand – The demand for space-based applications and services is growing within India, and ISRO is unable to cater to
  • Wider applications – The need for satellite data, imageries, and space technology now cut across sectors, from weather to agriculture to transport to urban development and more. Therefore, private sector investment is critical, for which a suitable policy environment needs to be
  • Need for Investments – In order to scale up operations, investment has to come from the private
  • Increasing vulnerabilities – India has to focus much on the security applications of outer space after China’s first anti-satellite (ASAT) missile test. So, there is a need to have private participation to distribute our space capabilities across different satellites and spacecraft to manage any adversary
  • Diversification – India has strong possibilities to emerge as a big player in space tourism and space
  • Synergy – Close collaboration of scientific and technological bureaucracy & political leadership would be helpful to create a
  • Pooling of resources – Private sector helps in sharing the pool of resources, talent, and human capital and can utilize the ISRO infrastructures, equipment, and other
  • Continued use of foreign application – The continued reliance on the US’s GPS

despite having an indigenous Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)

/ NavIC is a wake-up call for India to leverage its private sector potential to its fullest potential.


  • There are immense potential lies in the space sector that can be explored for the benefit of the common man as well as the
  • The facilitating and enabling attitude of the government is signalling a modernized and new space organizational structure and
  • The new space culture is open, with the freedom to innovate that in turn encourages private sector
  • Participation of private players will enhance the wider application of space services. g.- sector-specific, organ-specific, or region-specific satellites
  • Private participation will also enhance the reach of the space sector. i.e., many private players come up with innovative startups to provide space services at the doorstep of the common


Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre – (IN-SPACe)

  • It acts as an oversight and regulatory
  • It will act as an interface between ISRO and private parties and assess how best to

utilize India’s space resources and increase space-based activities.

  • It is responsible for devising mechanisms to offer sharing of technology, expertise, and facilities free of cost to promote Non-Government Private Entities (NGPEs).
  • It Is mandated the task of promoting, authorizing, and licensing private players to carry out space

New Space India Ltd (NSIL)

  • It is a public sector company that would serve as a marketing arm of
  • It is mandated to transfer the matured technologies developed by  the  ISRO  to Indian i.e., to market the technologies  developed  by  ISRO  and  bring more clients that need space-based services.

Other private players in the space sector

  • Agnikul Cosmos tested its semi-cryogenic Agnilet
  • Bellatrix Aerospace
  • Space Kidz India
  • ISRO’s Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLV) are also likely to be manufactured and operated by private players


  • Establish a new Space law – The New Space-specific law should meet both demand side and supply side concerns and
  • Enable and promote private enterprises to carry out independent space activities by enabling ease of business through single-window mechanisms, with predictable
  • Open up ISRO Infrastructure and
  • Inspire Youngsters and dreamers – Encouraging students to pursue a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM).


Recently, our Prime Minister said, “There should be no ‘space’  between  common man and space technology”. The Private sector has the potential  to  boost  India’s space programme globally. The need of the hour is to unlock the Space Sector on the path to Atmanirbhar Bharat so as to revolutionize the delivery of governance and boost developmental efforts.



All India Judicial Services have always remained in the news from the beginning of its perception. The most recent development was that the union government has to wait for All India Judicial Services (AIJS) as majority of the states and High Courts have not given their consensus in favour of establishing AIJS.


NITI Aayog in its report, ‘Strategy for New India@75’ mooted the creation of AIJS. All India Judicial Services is a reform in the judicial sphere as it will bring in a uniform and centralized recruitment process for the appointment of judges at the lower and subordinate levels and will also solve case pendency at a faster rate. The concept of AIJS was first proposed by the Law Commission in its 14th Report in 1958. The Judicial officers recruited under AIJS will work in a post not inferior to that of the District Judge.

Currently the judges at the lower judiciary are appointed by the State Public Service Commission by conducting exam and the meritorious candidates being selected by the High Court through a proper interview process. But the test will be conducted in four zones as in East,West, North and South. The candidates who clear the pan India test and process will be recruited to the states after being considered in interview by the High Courts and State Governments.

Appointment of Judges

 The appointment of Judges happens at three levels that is to the Higher Judiciary and to the Subordinate Judiciary. The appointment is based on the qualifications and requirements as mentioned in the constitution. The appointment and the transfer of the judges from High Court is done in accordance to Articles 124, 217 and 222 of the Constitution. The Supreme Court Judges are appointed by the President after consultation with the Judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.

The judges to the High court are also appointed by the President of India based on the recommendations of the collegium which consist of the Chief Justice and two senior- most judges.

Before Independence, Article 254 of the 1935 Act dealt with the appointment of the judges at lower levels which will be done by the governor for a province in consultation with the respective High Court. In High Courts and Supreme Court, the judges were appointed by the Governor General and the Vice Roy. The administration of the justice was initially in the State List as mentioned in the Act of 1935 which also continued in the initial phase of our Constitution. It was later transferred into Concurrent List with the 42nd amendment.

It was after 1990s that we started following a collegium system which consists of the Chief Justice and 4 other senior judges who recommend the names of the judges to the President of India. The collegium varies with the purpose. For instance, for the appointment of judges to SC and HC, there are different collegiums. The President can approve or withstand his/her approval. In case of disapproval, the President can reconsider only at first instance. Thus, the President appoints the Judges of the Supreme Court with respect to the advice of the collegium.

  • Current Scenario of appointment of District Judges and judges to lower levels.

The Chapter 6 of part VI of the Constitution deals with district judges. Under Part VI, Article 233 and 234 prescribes the power of appointment of District Judges and judges belonging to categories less than that of a District Judge in a state respectively.

Every individual state can prescribe its own rule on how a district judge be appointed. The governor will appoint the district judge in consultation with the recommendations of the High Court exercising jurisdiction in that state.

To a post lower than that of the District Judge, the appointment can be made by the State Public Service Commission by conducting various exams. An interview process is also held by the panel of High Court after which the names of the meritorious candidates will be recommended to the governor for appointment.  Thus, Article 234 prescribes for the appointment of judges lower to that of the position of district judge.

Different States follow different methodology of appointment. Is it possible to bring a positive uniform scenario across all the states? How can the appointment process to judges at district level and lower to that in a more credible manner?

Will the appointment of the judicial officers in key positions at the Union level like the IAS and IPS solve this issue? This thought or question remained unimportant as the administrative officers functioned some of the judicial and magisterial functions as well. Thus, the initial governments did not feel the necessity to build a separate cadre for the judicial services. For this reason, when the IAS and IPS etc. were created, IJS was not created.


In the year 1951, the All-India Services Act was created under Article 312 under which the Services, the emoluments, the powers, the rights, the protection etc. were mentioned.

Initially, when the Act was brought, there were two Services for bringing in more uniformity which were the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS). In the later years, the government wanted to bring in more uniformity and to bring the talented pool to the forefront in the administration process of the country. The Act was amended and in 1951 and later in 1962, three more services were created which are Indian Engineers Services (IES), Indian Forest Services (IFS), Indian Medical and Health Services (IMHS). But, only Indian Forest Services was passed. Does amending the All-India Services Act alone be sufficient enough to create a new All-India Judicial Service? How are the Services created? The Constitution of India in Article 312 states that only if the Council of States pass the resolution where 2/3rd of total members of the House should be present and voting can an amendment be done to create a new service. Thus, in 1961 the Rajya Sabha passed the resolution and in 1962 the Act was amended to create IFS (Indian Forest Service). Is it possible to pass a similar resolution to create IJS (Indian Judicial Service)?


In the year 1958, the Law Commission published a report on Reforms of Judicial Administration which recommended for creation of All-India Judicial Service. In the year 1978 and 1986 again there were recommendations. Similarly, the Parliament, Supreme Court and various other bodies opined for the creation of AIJS (All-India Judicial Services).The Supreme Court in 1992 and 1993 stressed for the establishment of AIJS in All India Judges Association v/s Union of India’ Case and said that the execution of AIJS lies with the central government. In the year 1976, the 42nd Amendment, which is often referred to as Mini Constitution was passed which brought in significant changes on various aspects including the judicial sphere.

The 42nd Amendment provided for the changes in judicial sphere such as,

  1. Administration of Justice.
  2. Constitution and Organization of all courts except High Court and Supreme Court.
  3. The entire subordinate judiciary was now brought under the concurrent list.
  4. So, now the Union also has the power to legislate on any matter related to the constitution and management of the district courts and other subordinate courts.
  5. Amendment of Article 312.
  • Article 312 deals with All-India Services and the amendment was made in such a way that when a law is provided by the Union for the creation of AIJS, even if it is against Chapter 6 of Part VI (which states the procedure for the appointment of district judges under Articles 233 and 234) of the Constitution, it will still be valid and it will not be considered an Amendment to the Constitution under Article 368.

Earlier there was a provision in the Constitution that the District Judges are to be appointed by the Governor of the State in consultation with the concerned High Court. But, now as it changed to Concurrent list, the laws can be made in such a way for the creation of AIJS and even if it is against the existing provision, it will not be considered an amendment in itself to the Constitution under Article 368.

Such a law can be enacted with a simple majority in both houses of the Parliament.

However, a resolution is still needed to create an AIJS. Once the resolution is passed, the existing provisions cannot interfere with the newly created law and the same will not be considered as a violation of the existing provisions.

Why did this complexity arise only in AIJS?

For the creation of other Services such as Indian Forest Service, there was no such Service prior to that. But in Judicial Services, certain procedures were already mentioned in the Constitution which makes it complex. First already a provision was there, now new provisons will take away the rihts of the state.



  • All India Judicial Services can bring immense reform in the Indian Judiciary.
  • Justice delayed is Justice denied, constituting AIJS will tackle the high case pendency issue in India.
  • Shortage of Judges appointed to meet the requirement of the country with a significantly high population.
  • Representation of all the sections of the society is made possible.


  • Federalism is challenged.

The centralized recruitment process especially of District Judges and positions lower to that is seen as a challenge to the federal nature of the country thereby taking away certain powers granted to the states.

  • Regional Issue

There is a concern that it may not address the cultural, regional and language aspect of the people of a particular region.

  • Language barrier

The regional language used in regular judicial business is an issue for the judicial officers who hail from other states.

  • Article 312 and 233

Article 312 prescribes the creation of All India Services and if the appointment of District Judges is brought into the ambit of the centre, then it stands in direct contrast to Article 233 which says about the appointment of District Judges.

  • Constitutional limitation

In order to create a new Service, an amendment is required in the All India Services Act and then the Subject was changed from State List to the Concurrent list for felicitating the process. Does this stand constitutionally valid? Considerable number of amendments is required to execute the process which may violate the other provisions of the constitution.


  • Population to Judge Ratio

It will address the issue of a smaller number of judges appointed and the judge to population ratio can be addressed.

  • Adequate Representation

It will provide adequate representation to the marginalized sections of the society.

  • Role of women

The percentage of women in Indian Judiciary is comparatively less than that of the developed countries. We have a percentage of 11.5% of women judges in the High Courts while it is four women judges out of 33 in the office in case of Supreme Court. Only 15% are women advocates out of a 1.7 million registered advocates. AIJS give more opportunities for adequate representation of women.

  • Meritorious Appointment

The structured appointment process will draw the talent pool at its best. Making the appointment merit oriented will bring in more trust and confidence from the public.

  • Chronic Corruption and Nepotism.

Transparency in appointment will reduce any kind of corruption and misuse of power.


A consensus can be built through necessary steps for creating an appropriate legislative frame work.

A training session can be set up where the language classes and other training can be given.


A merit-based appointment into judiciary will draw the talent pool of the country and also give adequate representation to women and other minority sections. The regular appointment of the judicial officers to each state in a uniform manner will eventually close all the pending cases by effectively and efficiently delivering justice without any procedural delay.


The creation of All India Judicial Services will be an affirmative step for reforming the Indian Judiciary with its structural and operational limitations. Critically analyze. (250 Words, 15 Marks)



In response to the invasion of Ukraine, several European countries and the US have imposed economic sanctions on Russia. USA, EU, Canada and many of its allies have removed many Russian banks from SWIFT, an important system of international payments, which has deeply impacted the Russian economy. It is being believed that out of all the sanctions imposed on Russia so far, Russia has been hurt the most due to its removal from the swift system. Previously Iran was also removed from the swift system in the year 2018 there by its economy was hit very hard. Russia largely depends on swift system for exporting oil and gas and because of which its removal from the swift system is being considered as the harshest of all the imposed sanctions.


  • SWIFT stands for Society for World Wide Interbank Financial Tele communication.
  • It is headquartered in Belgium and was conceived in the year 1973 with 239 banks from 15 different countries around the world to specifically address communications about the cross-border payments.
  • Later, by the year 1977, swift network go text ended to 518 banks across 22 countries.
  • At present, more than 11000 banks across 200 countries are connected with the swift network.
  • In the year 2021, on an average, 42 million transactions a day were processed using swift fin messages.
  • Russia is being considered as the second biggest user of the network with 300 banks and organisations.
  • Swift doesn’t transfer funds rather will transfer message between the financial institutions about where the funds are being
  • It neither manages  the  account on behalf of the individuals or the financial institutions nor hold the funds from third parties.
  • It also doesn’t perform any clearing or settlement functions.
  • It is being regulated by G-10 central banks from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, The Nether lands, the UK, the US, Switzerland, and Sweden, a long side the European Central Bank.
  • SWIFT claims to be neutral. Its share holders, consisting of 3,500 firms across the globe, elect the 25-member board, which is responsible for over sight and management of the company.


  • In a globalized society, where the international transactions are becoming eminent and at a highest scale, there by requires a safest communication. Thus, swift will provide a safest communication for interbank financial transaction.
  • SWIFT will keep a track of payments i.e information about the funds being transferred. This helps the sending institution tell the receiving institution, what account the money is supposed to be end up in. Also, swift will make processing hundreds and thousands of payments per day as easy as possible thereby making the global economy to function smoothly and efficiently.


  • Old system used before SWIFT was TELEX– Tele printer exchange.
  • It is a system developed just before the World War 2 and was one of the original forms of data transmission.
  • TELEX communication between the financial institutions were not standardised and it also had a free message format which led to lot of human errors. it also made the processing time quiet long.
  • As the cross-border payment volumes increased, then on-standardisation became a drag on the efficiency of telex, thereby led to the birth of SWIFT platform, went live in the year 1977.
  • In its 1styear, swift processed over 10 million messages and it very quickly replaced TELEX as the dominant financial messaging system in the world.
  • Anyone using the swift network which is a network of over 11000 financial institutions in over 200 countries, now inputs a standardized swift code or Bic codes (bank identifier code) there by lead to the minimization of errors.


  • Two member banks of the swift network will be having a nostro and vostro account that they hold jointly.
  • Nostro and vostro are 2 Latin words which means our sand yours
  • Once swift message is being confirmed, then the sending bank deposits the donors fund into the nostro Vostro account.
  • Receiving bank then debits the nostro vostro account and credits the recipient’s bank account with the funds.


In the beginning, SWIFT founders designed the network to facilitate communication about Treasury and correspondent transactions only. The robustness of the message format design allowed for the huge scalability through which SWIFT gradually expanded to provide services to the following:

  • Broker age institutes and trading houses.
  • Securities dealers.
  • Asset management companies.
  • Clearing houses.
  • Corporate business houses.
  • Treasury market participants and service providers.
  • Individuals or businesses making international wires or money transfers.
  • Foreign exchange and money brokers.


  • While SWIFT is the most common network for transferring money globally, some countries have built their own messaging networks. For example, SPFS, or the System for Transfer of Financial Messages, is the Russian-equivalent of SWIFT. It was developed in 2014 when countries around the globe threatened to expel Russia from SWIFT due to its annexation of Crimea. It allows for transfer of funds between any two banks on the system.
  • China has developed its own messaging network called CIPS. As of 2021, CIPS counted 80 financial institutions as its members, including approximately 23 Russian banks.
  • While corporate adoption of crypto currency has been limited so far, it does serve as an alternative to SWIFT. The drawbacks of using crypto currency are a very low acceptance rate – very few businesses accept crypto currency as a form of payment and the volatility in the value of crypto currencies.


  • Removal of Russia from the SWIFT network  is considered to be most severe financial sanction that could be levied. This will effectively cripple the ability for the majority of funds to flow In and out of the country.
  • Russia had to rely on other ways to process payments which will be extremely cumber some and messy. According to USA, it will make Russia to rely on telephone or fax route to make the payment, which will be difficult and not so safe.
  • The suggestion to cut off Russia from SWIFT platform was not new. in fact, on April 29,2021, European parliament passed a non-binding resolution to exclude Russia from Swift network if they invade Ukraine.
  • The idea of cutting off Russia from the swift platform was on the cards much before in the year 2014 when they annexed Crimea. On that occasion, the then finance minister of Russia Alexei Kudrin said that it would cause Russian GDP to contract by 5%.


The present cut off from swift network will urge Russia to find an alternative channel to process financial transactions

  • Russia could use crypto currency or Russia’s own network System for transfer of financial messages (SPFS) – a Russian equivalent of the SWIFT financial transfer system, developed by the Central Bank of Russia. The system has been in development since 2014, when the United States government threatened to disconnect Russia from the SWIFT system. But, SPFS is mainly used by organisations inside the country.

Alternatively, China which is Russia’s biggest trade partner and hence Russia could direct its banks to use the Chinese owned cross border interbank payment system (CIPS). But CIPS possesses enormous limitations such as Rubble needs to get converted in to Yuan.


  1. Financial transaction with foreigners will get stopped.
  • If a country is excluded from the most participatory financial facilitating platform, its foreign funding would take a hit, making it entirely reliant on the domestic investors. This is particularly troublesome when institutional investors are seeking new markets in newer territories.
  • Also, this would have its own effect on the remittances and the foreigners who are staying in the Russia because those non-resident individuals will not be able to send their remittances to their family living in their home country and vice versa.
  1. Meeting obligations.
  • Russian obligations of any payments or supply of commodities to the other countries and vice versa will get affected because of such sanctions being imposed on Russia. Whatever agreements they signed each other will not be having any validity hence forth.
  1. Receiving payments for exports.
  • The items which Russia already exported now will not be able to get its payments immediately because of the sanctions being imposed.
  • On the contrary, whatever imports which Russia had made, they are now not in a position to pay for such imports.
  1. Inflation in the world market and higher borrowing cost.
  • Since, Russia cannot provide short term credit as well as it cannot access dollar asset immediately, exporters will stop their exports to Russia and this will create shortages in the world market and there by creates inflation in the world market.
  • Since Russia, because of the sanctions being imposed, cannot borrow money from the foreign countries, hence its transaction will be difficult and even though if borrowing becomes possible, the borrowing cost will be high, there by leading to increase in the inflation.
  • This will in turn lead to depreciation (fall in the currency value) of rubble and the debt-GDP ratio will increase. In order to control the inflation, interest rates will get increased.
  1. Disagreement among the Europe an countries.
  • Europe an countries seem to be divided on the Russia’s removal from swift.
  • Russia being the major supplier of oil and natural gas to the Europe. in such a situation, if payment option to Russia gets closed, will have an adverse effect on the supply of oil and natural gas.
  • On the other hand , it’s not an easy task to find any other alternatives to these essential commodities.
  • Countries like Germany, France, Italy has their own challenges which they might have to face due to Russia’s

removal from the swift network.

  1. China factor
  • China always supports Russia. Russia can now move closer to China after being removed from the swift China always desired to end the dominance of western countries like USA in the international market.
  • Chinese president Xi Jinping always desires to curtail US dollar dominated global economic structure.
  • Russia, being considered as an “all weather friend of India “and hence its growing closeness with China will be

a concern for India.


Countries that opposed in cutting off Russia from swift basically argue that USA, Canada and EU can do enough economic damage through other financial sanctions. While others were of the opinion that maximum needs to be done right away to have the best chance of pressurizing Russia to end the brutal invasion. India might face interruption and delay in arms import with Russia because of the sanctions. However, there is some relief for India and Russia as their bilateral payments are made in Indian Rupee and sometimes in other currencies like Euro for both imports and exports. So, sanctions may not have a huge impact on the payments.


Discuss the significance of SWIFT and the possible implications of SWIFT in the global economy.

 (150 Words, 10 Marks)