Category: Education



Recently, in the United States of America, an African woman was cured of HIV after receiving a stem cell transplant from a donor who was naturally resistant to the virus that causes AIDS. She became the first woman and the third person to date to be cured of HIV disease.


  • Normally, diseases can be prevented by vaccines, medicines, or by surgical treatments. All these elements are made up of chemicals and biochemical elements.
  • Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate and transform into any type of cells of the body when and where needed.
  • It means they have the ability to develop into many different cell types, such as muscle cells to brain cells.
  • The human journey begins with a single cell inside the womb and it gets divided into multiple cells and generates trillions of cells. The bodily organs start producing with the functioning of genetic codes within the womb of the mother.


  • A cell is defined as the smallest, basic unit of life that is responsible for all of life’s processes.
  • All organisms are made up of cells. Each cell contains a fluid called the cytoplasm, which is enclosed by a membrane.
  • Every cell has one nucleus, DNA, mitochondria, and membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm.
  • Each and every cell of a human body is the same, however, each cell has a specific purpose designed in its DNA structure.


  • Different organs are existing inside the human body such as eyes, ears, hands, legs, heart, liver, etc.
  • It is because of the diversity of the cells that different organs are produced according to the genetic code.
  • In a respective DNA, some parts are activated and some parts are not activated.
  • DNA in every cell has some sequence, this sequence produces protein and the proteins are responsible for building muscles i.e., the entire body is made up of proteins. Thus, organs will be formed when there is the secretion of proteins and the proteins will be produced by cells based on the code.
  • The different organs such as eyes, ears, etc. are secreting different proteins responsible for the formation of that particular organ.
  • Though the appearance of cells looks identical, the application of their internal code is different.
  • Within the same DNA, half of the parts of DNA will be called as regulatory divisions and in that regulatory divisions, only some parts switch to particular type of cells. Therefore, a different part of cells will be switched to different parts of DNA in different cells. This is the reason why there are different parts and organs in the human body.


  • The original cell can be called the embryonic cells. These cells are having the property to be turn into any of the specialized cells. The process starts immediately after fertilization; the embryo gets formed during the blastocyst process and can be converted into any of the specialized cells.
  • These stem cells are those cells from which all other specialized cells are generated.


  • These stem cells are available at the time of the embryonic process or at a later part of the body.
  • Even children and adults can have stem cells within their bodies i.e., the human body along with other cells having stem cells.


Stem cells are divided into four main forms:

  1. Embryonic cells
  • Embryonic stem cells are the Stem cells that exist during the earliest stage of development of the embryo.
  • It is immediately after the fertilization of egg and sperm; the development of the embryo takes place and it has the capacity to turn into any specialized cells.
  1. Adult stem cells
  • The adult cells are present in the adult human body but it gives rise to a limited number of specialized cell types.
  • It comes from fully developed tissues such as the brain, heart, blood cells, and bone marrow. They are more likely to generate only certain types of cells.
  • For example, the adult stem cell of a blood cell can turn itself into a blood cell, a liver stem cell can turn into a liver cell only.
  • The normal cell cannot have the capacity to multiply into different cell organs.
  • The stem cells are not single cells and the cell division happens when it is placed within an egg or oocyte.
  • However, there is a recent report which suggests that adult stem cells have the capacity to turn into different specialized cells with some proper programming.
  1. Cord blood stem cells or perinatal stem cells
  • These stem cells are available in the placental membrane, placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid within the womb of a mother.
  • These fluids can be collected when the child is born and they have to be cryogenically preserved.
  • In the future, if the child or the relative is affected by any diseases, the stored stem cells can be used for getting a cure.
  1. Therapeutic cloning of stem cells
  • It is the process of fusing eggs and sperm outside the body called in vitro fertilization and by giving proper signals for the formation. The stem cells that have been obtained from the resulting embryos are used for the generation of specialized cells and further stem cells.
  • Sometimes, the procedure requires an embryoand, in some cases, the procedure is different.
  • It is possible to program the stem cells in a systematic way to generate particular cells.
  • For example, by giving proper signals, it is possible to make heart cells from original cells. i.e., the heart stem cell produces specialized cells of the heart along with further heart stem cells which are again utilized for curing diseases.


The main idea of stem cells is to cure major diseases that is existing today.

  • For instance, assume a blood cancer patient who is undergoing radiation would be lacking blood cells in the body. But it is not possible to inject blood each time in the human body. Moreover, the blood cells existing in the body have no capacity to generate further blood cells. In this situation, injecting blood stem cells with proper programming of embryonic or adult stem cells can generate specialized blood cells and blood stem cells also.
  • Once injected inside the born marrow, the cell starts producing the blood and the production goes on.
  • The entire process will become sustained inside the human body.
  • In another case, considering a part of the liver system which got dysfunctionalised. Compensating that portion of the liver with a different set of protein-made cells will result in the failure of the process and it will not function. Placing the liver stem cells can only make the system function properly.

The entire technology is regenerative curing. For curing disease, there is a need to use stem cells and regenerate the cells required. This is the technology involved in Stem cells.


  • The technology is not simple.
  • It cannot be used for every individual very easily.

The following are the reasons:

  1. Therapeutic cloning of stem cells is theoretically successful, but it is not much practical now.
  2. Less awareness among cord blood stem cells and the complexity in collecting and storing the same is another concern.
  3. Unethical and criminal activity if obtaining embryos from the womb of the mother involuntary because it is morally wrong to use the embryo that contains the cells, capable to transform to a fully developed human being.
  4. Matching issue- Adult stem cells can be taken from the body of adults and no issues are associated with this. However, it requires perfect matching between donor and recipient of the stem cells, otherwise, the body may reject it by considering it as a foreign element.
  5. Limited to particular stem cells – Adult stem cells can be easily obtained, but they can only give that particular specialized stem cells. However, embryonic stem cells have no such issues and they have the capacity to turn into any specialized cells.
  6. Uncertainty with Recent reports about adult stem cells.
  • Research suggests that with proper programming and extra process, adult stem cells can make into pluripotent stem cells i.e., they would get the ability to convert into any specialized stem cells. But the entire stem cell is in its nascent stage and this particular research’s success rate and side effects are yet to be known.


  • HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It affects CD4, a type of White Blood Cell (T cells)in the body’s immune system. Once the virus enters the body, it multiplies itself and destroys CD4 cells, thus severely damaging the human immune system.
  • The resultant weak immune system makes a person prone to multiple infections and cancer.
  • The process of finding vaccines or medicines for HIV is quite difficult considering the very dynamic nature of the said virus.
  • The available medical treatment is Anti-Retroviral Therapy which itself doesn’t provide the cure, but it manages the chronic damage of HIV to the immune system of the patient. It also reduces the spreading of disease from one person to another.


  • An African woman in US was diagnosed with HIV in 2013 and started Anti-Retroviral therapy.
  • In 2017, she was again diagnosed with Leukemia, and later she was exposed to radiation as part of the treatment. During the therapy, some blood cells got destroyed.
  • As part of the treatment, the doctors collected adult stem cells from the bone marrow of her relative.
  • At the same time, they also collected cord blood from a baby and combined it together.
  • The patient was treated with this procedure and her body was able to generate blood cells and blood stem cells. It resulted in curing her Leukemia and after some time, reports show that she is free from HIV infection too.


  • The earlier two patients who got a cure from HIV were treated with adult stem cells only and not Cord blood stem cells.


The process of getting a cure for HIV is extremely difficult with stem cells too. The following are the reasons.

  1. Need natural immunity
  • It is necessary that stem cells must be taken from people who are having natural immunity against HIV infection.
  • There are some people whose genetic sequences are designed in such a way that their stem cells are naturally immune to HIV.
  • Such genetic modification is not easily available.
  1. Matching issue
  • It is not easy to find a matching stem cells unless any relative stem cells are matched. The problem of mismatch would lead to failure and rejection of cells within the body.


  • Inherent capacity – By taking the stem cells from adult stem cells having natural immunity, the generated RBC, WBC, and platelets are having immune capacity inherently that acted against HIV.
  • Moreover, it is not the passive immunity generated through vaccines. Vaccines cannot bring the required immunity because the nature of the virus changes very frequently.


  • The given combination is actually a part of the research, they tried and tested and it proved successful.
  • The application of already matched adult stem cells helped the chord cells to fully integrate into the person’s immune system. Moreover, it boosted the parent immunity in this treatment.


Apart from curing diseases, a stem cell has the following application also.

  1. Development of Regenerative medicines- It helps in the treatment of diseases by developing medicines.
  2. Understand the nature of diseases – It helps to understand the reasons behind the occurrence of diseases such as either through pathogens or sometimes, the reasons are far behind understanding.
  3. Experiments- Culturing stem cells outside the body and exposing them to different bodily environments helps in analyzing the reason behind the specific occurrence.
  4. Testing new drugs – It can be applied for testing the safety and effectiveness which cannot be tested directly in the human body. In this case, application of testing drugs to the cultured stem cells would help to understand the reaction.


  • Embryonic stem cells and cord blood stem cells are completely versatile and can be converted into any specialized cells.
  • Highly relevant – Around 23.48 lakh people are suffering from HIV infection. Within the age group of 15-49, about 0.24 % constitutes the male population and 0.2 % constitutes the female population.


 Stem cell therapy holds vast potential in the present scenario. The immunity gained through the stem cell is different from passive immunity gained through vaccines. Here, the treatment is not using direct regenerative medicine, the regenerated medicine used itself has created some sort of immune system that helped to cure HIV.


What do you understand by Stem cell therapy? Explain the application and the associated challenges of stem cell therapy.(150 Words, 10 Marks)



Recently, there has been a spurt in the number of entrepreneurs venturing into agri-startups that are connecting farmers. The increase in mobile connectivity and the low price of data have aided their reach.


  • Thougharound50%ofpeopledependonthissector,itis only contributing around 18-20 % ofGVA.
  • The main problem of agriculture lies in the fragmentation oflandholdings.
  • The average landholding size in India is shrinking with the increase in rural population and fragmentation offamilies.
  • Around88%ofhouseholdshavelandholdingsintherangeof0.5hectaresto2hectaresasperSituation Assessment of Agricultural Households and Land and Livestock Holdings of Households inRural,2019.
  • Theideawashighly successful in USSR-likecountries.
  • The inherent Indian social conditions are the major cause of the failure. Earlier the lands were in the hands of landlords. With social reforms and land reforms, the concentrated land gets divided among thepopulation.
  • Thus, the people have apprehension about the loss of their land, if they contribute to a collective farmingmechanism.
  • Growth in agriculture is possible by focusing on three coreareas:
  1. To increase the volume of production- the volume can be increased by considering the ecological constraints. Overproduction can negatively affectnature.
  2. Toincreasethevalueofproduce–Byprocessingthefoodsandincreasingtheirvaluecanprovide a multitude of benefits for thefarmers.
  3. To increase the profit for the hands behind the production – There is a need to minimize the input cost and improve the output price to attain better remuneration forthem.
  • Existing policy and institutional mechanisms such as Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, Agricultural universities, and ICRISAT are functioning, but these mechanisms are not enough for increasing production.
  • The already existing institutions such as Farmer Producer Organization, Small Farmers Agri-business Consortium, e-Nam, and cooperatives are not giving enough benefits to thefarmers.
  • In this scenario, aggregation in agriculture through proliferating agri-tech startups is providing interestingsolutions.
  • More than 1,300 agri-tech start-ups are existing in our country. It helps to facilitate a supply chain of inputs and outputs, market linkage, and access to financialservices.
  • The past five years alone have witnessed 9 times increase in institutional funding to agri-tech start- ups.
  • During2014–2019,thesectorattracted$1.7billioncomparedto$0.2billionintheprecedingfive-year block. It signifies the growing interest amongst risk investors in agriculture and allied sectors with a total investment of $2.1 billion in 2021, a 97% jump from 2020. Investment analysis shows that the market investment in this sector will be $24.1 billion by2025.


  • Simply, aggregation refers to the process of grouping items or things as awhole.
  • Aggregation in agriculture is the act of individual or collective farmers workingtogether.
  • An aggregation is a significant approach for the development of the agriculture sector since aggregation generates a high level of efficiency in thesector.

The aggregation point in agriculture is where farmers get together to receive services or sell their products. This can be at the level of an intermediary or at the farmerlevel.

  • An aggregator is an individual or business authority that collects and distributes products from many sources.
  • Examples of aggregate farmer produceinclude:
  1. Inputdistributor
  2. Farmers’market
  • Aggregation in agriculture help in the reduction of costs of transportation anddistribution.

How aggregation works in a real scenario

  1. Aggregators provide basic and necessary information to thefarmers.
  • For example- Information regarding the demand for particular fruits provided by aggregators to farmers helps in the cultivation of the same. During the harvesting period, better cold storage facilities provided by the aggregators help in getting better remuneration for thefarmers.
  1. Aggregation helps smallholders meet the standards and requirements of the modernmarket.
  2. Aggregation enhances the competitiveness of farmers by reducing transactioncosts.
  3. Inaggregation,small-scalesuppliessourcedfromindividualfarmersarebulkedintoabundance.These supplies can be readily and economically transported, sorted, processed, andstored.


  1. Economiesofscale–Itisadecreaseinthecostofproductionwhenthereisanincreaseinthescaleof productionofacompany.Collectivefarmingandprocurementreducetheoverallcostofproduction.
  2. Value addition – Aggregators concentrate on adding value to the products which raise the marketability of theproduct.
  • For example- Converting tomato to tomato sauce increases the shell life of the vegetable. But it is not feasible for an individual farmer. Assembling multiple farmers can ensure effective value addition for theproducts.
  1. Cold storage facility – According to the demand in the market, aggregators have adequate infrastructural facilities to keep the perishables to avoid distress sales by thefarmers.
  2. Reduced input cost – Aggregators provide the option to avail rented tractor facility, and better seed and fertilizer disposal at reducedcosts.


  1. Connecting farmers andretailers-
  • Thetechnologicalstart-upscanpurchasethefoodgrainsfromthefarmersandtransferthemto the retailers within a stipulated timeperiod.
  • Startups can bring scientific technology like a cold storage facility, better packaging,etc.
  • They can also provide information about retailers’ demands tofarmers.
  • Italsohelpstoavoidharvestingtheentirecropatonegotherebyadjustingtheforcesofdemand and supply in the market.
  • Technological intervention through websites and mobile apps are examples of aggregation by usingtechnology.
  1. Connecting farmers directly with themarket
    • Farmers are connected to the market through the e-Nammechanism.
    • It helps the farmers to sell the products beyond geographicallimitations.
  1. Connecting farmers with inputprocurement
    • It helps the farmers to avail of benefits like rented tractors, heavy machinery, better seed, and fertilizers at lowercosts.
    • It is not feasible for the individual farmer to purchase the tractors for his smalllandholding.
    • Thus, aggregators will save the farmers from the purchase of expensive farmingequipment.
    • For instance- the facility of Kisan drones where the farmers can use drones for spraying fertilizers,andpesticidesandcanalsobeusedforsurveillance.Itisnoteconomicalandpossible for individual farmers to procure drones for their use. Here, the aggregator of input comes into function.
  1. Connecting farmers with marketprices
    • Technology startups help the farmers by providing information such as price volatility, market forces, weather patterns,etc.
    • It helps the farmers to plan their productionscientifically.
  1. These technological startups also work well in allied sectors such as Poultry, Fish, and Meat sector. It connectstheproducersandthemarketforcesandhelpsfarmerstoproduceaccordingtotheneedsof themarket.



  1. Bad pastexperience:
    • Farmers often faced bitter experiences with governmentpolicies.
    • For instance, in 2006, Bihar repealed its APMC Act with a similar objective to attract private investment in the sector. However, this resulted in a lack of required marketing infrastructure as the existing infrastructure eroded over time due to poorupkeep.
  1. Lack oftrust:
    • Farmers have no trust in private players. Farmers may feel that private parties make a profit at the cost of farmers. Thus, farmers always stand for their own individual interests rather than the collectivegoal.
    • For example: Recently the government revoked the three farm bills due to farmers’ huge protest. The farm bill had a provision for contract farming where the aggregators provide seed, fertilizers, technological assistance, etc. The farmers have to sell products after the harvest to contractors at a predeterminedprice
  1. Confined to someareas
    • Existing aggregators are mostly confined to the western and southern regions of the country. The northern, eastern, and northeastern regions are lacking the facility of aggregators. Itfinally results in regional and incomedisparity.
  1. Multiplefailures
    • Punjab government had their own contract farming act but failed in itsimplementation.
    • Tamil Nadu state also passed a contract farming act in 2019, but the present government revoked theact.
  1. Issues with the existingmechanism
    • For example- The existing e-Nam mechanism where the electronic market connects the buyers and sellers. However, the cost associated with transportation, packaging & labeling guidelines, grading, etc., are major issues for their limited success. Neither the farmer nor buyer has the capacity to transport the products. This issue ultimately led to the e-Nam facility confining to intra-state transactions and much less inter-statetransactions.


  1. Capacity building- Workshops and seminars in regional languages for imparting sophisticated farming practices to thefarmers.
  2. Better awareness- Farmers need to be educated about the benefits of contract farming, collective farming, technological interventions, andaggregators.
  3. Stakeholder consultation- All the stakeholders need to be consulted while framing legislations and policies. It will help in removing all the concerns and ensures trust in the governancestructure.
  4. Evidence-based policy making- Devise better policies using real-time data to suit the market conditions.
  5. Infrastructural facilities- Improve the infrastructural facilities such as setting up new technological startups, scientific cold storage facilities, etc., which are necessary for increasing the value of production.
  6. Infuse capital- huge capital outlays are needed for conducting research and development, infrastructure development,etc.
  7. Technologicalintervention-DuetoinherentIndia-specificapprehensions,itisonlythroughtechnology interventions, maximum benefits can be driven out of the agriculture and alliedsectors.
  8. Aggregation – The aggregators transmit the real-time market situations to the farmers and help farmers to enjoy the benefits of economies ofscale.


  • Unless structural changes are introduced in the agricultural field through technological intervention and aggregation, the notion of increasing the Minimum Support Price alone will not bring necessary changes in the agriculturesector.
  • It is important to amicably resolve the difference of opinion between the government and farmers with respect toMSP.
  • Gainingfarmers’trustisthemostinevitablefactorthatcanbringrevolutionarychangesinthissector.


The role of aggregation in agriculture is indispensable considering the highly volatile market situations. Aggregators can better forecast the market forces and communicate them to the farmers for balancing the market demand and supply. It will transform the dream of India “Doubling farmers’ income” into a reality in the near future.


Discuss the critical role of aggregators in agricultural supply chain management in India. Enumerate the associated challenges and suggest remedial measures for efficient working of it.(250 Words, 15 Marks)



Currently, India does not have a specific law for refugees and asylum-seekers from other parts of the world. But it is questionable that refugee flows to India are unlikely to end any time soon on account of the unstable neighboring countries.



  • A refugee is a person who has fled their own country because they are at risk of serious persecution and violation of their human rights.
  • Moreover, their government is not in a position to protect them from those dangers or stop the atrocities happening there.
  • The persecution can happen on multiple grounds such as religious persecution, political persecution, setbacks from natural disasters, and civil wars like in Sri Lanka.


  • An asylum-seeker is a person who has undergone persecution and serious human rights violations and is seeking protection in another country.
  • However, he/she hasn’t yet been legally recognized as a refugee and is waiting to receive a decision on their asylum claim from host countries.
  • The receiving countries have to verify and recognize the asylum seekers
  • Every asylum seeker need not be a refugee.
  • For example- Taslima Nasreen, the noted Bengali feminist writer sought asylum in India after her liberal writings in Bangladesh.


  • Migration is a different term where people move from one country to another in search of better facilities, better economic opportunities, and to achieve a better standard of living.
  • Others feel they must leave because of poverty, political unrest, gang violence, natural disasters, or other serious circumstances that exist there.
  • The person who moves countries through migration is called a migrant. Migration is always legal and they are not asylum-seekers or refugees.


  • Refugee and asylum seekers policy enables the world to promote Universal Brotherhood and greater human values across the world.
  • Helps to lead a peaceful co-existence of different cultures of people under one planet.
  • Humanitarian assistance- Earlier, people from Syria and Iraq moved to European countries by crossing the Mediterranean Sea by facing pathetic conditions, and many people got submerged.
  • We have an example of “Alan Kurdi” a two-year-old Syrian boy, whose image of lying dead on the beach in 2015 made global headlines.
  • The ongoing Ukraine-Russia war where around 26 Lakh people already fled Ukraine shows the significance of having a holistic refugee policy.


  • In aftermath of World War II (1939-1945), millions of people fled their homelands and were forcibly displaced, deported, and resettled in other countries.
  • Throughout the 20th century, the international community steadily assembled a set of guidelines, laws, and conventions to ensure the adequate treatment of refugees and protect their human rights.
  • In July 1951, a diplomatic conference in Geneva adopted the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (‘1951 Convention’), which was later amended by the 1967 Protocol.
  • Initially, the 1951 Convention was more or less limited to protecting European refugees in the aftermath of World War II, but the 1967 Protocol expanded its scope as the problem of displacement spread around the world.
  • The cornerstone of the 1951 Convention is the principle of non-refoulment contained in Article 33. According to this principle, a refugee should not be returned to a country where he or she faces serious threats to his or her life or freedom.

Other rights contained in the 1951 Convention include:

  • The right not to be expelled, except under certain, strictly defined conditions (Article 32)
  • The right not to be punished for illegal entry into the territory of a contracting State (Article31)
  • The right to work (Articles 17 to 19)
  • The right to housing (Article 21)
  • The right to education (Article 22)
  • The right to public relief and assistance (Article 23)
  • The right to freedom of religion (Article 4)
  • The right to access the courts (Article 16)
  • The right to freedom of movement within the territory (Article 26)
  • The right to be issued identity and travel documents (Articles 27 and 28).


India is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, the key legal documents about refugee protection.


Even though India has not signed UN Convention on Refugees, the Indian philosophy- “Atithi Devo Bhava,” meaning ‘Guest is equivalent to God, is imbibed in the Indian heart. India has been practicing this value system from the ancient period onwards.

  1. Even before Christ, India had a history of giving asylum to Jewish people who were persecuted at the hands of the Babylonian Empire.
  2. According to United Nations High Commission for Refugees, more than 250000 refugees were recognized by UNHCR in India.
  3. Zoroastrian refugees-
  • Parsis from Iran when the country was Islamised came to India and settled, now they are one of the most prosperous businessmen in India.
  1. Tibetan Refugees-
  • Dalai Lama and his 1 lakh followers were granted asylum in India when they were persecuted by Chinese authorities.
  1. Victims of partition-
  • India-Pakistan partition 1947 –India made adequate measures for the rehabilitation of refugees.
  • Bangladesh liberation war 1971, when millions migrated to India to flee the conflict in Bangladesh.
  1. Sri Lankan refugees-
  • Civil War in Sri Lanka resulted in the migration of huge numbers of refugees from Sri Lanka who settled in Tamil Nadu.
  1. Rohingya Refugees-
  • The recent conflict in Myanmar resulted in a huge influx of Rohingya refugees in India.
  1. Many refugees from Afghanistan and African nations such as Sudan, Somalia, and Nepal are seeking asylum, and India not even a signatory to the Refugee convention is giving asylum based on moral values.
  2. Chakma Buddhists- Chakma Buddhists of the Chittagong region sought asylum in Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh who were displaced from Bangladesh. With the National Human Right Commission’s continuous effort, Supreme Court had stated that the “life and personal liberty of every Chakma residing within the Migrant State shall be protected”.
  3. Judiciary in its several verdicts delivered on the refugee needs and to have “Right to Dignified Life” for them.

A different view

  1. The Supreme Court of India issued an order, allowing the deportation of Rohingyas from Indian territory.
  2. Several Sri Lankan Tamil refugees were deported back to Sri Lanka after former Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination.


  1. Uniformity- To ensure uniform laws, rules, and regulations to deal with the influx of refugees.
  2. Adhoc policy- Drafting Adhoc policies to deal with asylum seekers leads to policy ambiguity. It is high time to frame a permanent refugee policy.
  3. Inclusive protection- A mere acceptance of refugees may not be enough to ensure the fulfillment of basic human rights that are needed for them.
  4. No space for confusion- There is a need for a policy to avoid confused identities. A legal framework will be required to deal with refugees and asylum seekers separately from indigenous communities.
  5. Better knowledge-
  • India is one of the largest peacekeeping mission operators. Thus, India must have a holistic idea about the deprived conditions of persecuted refugees that can better contribute to their protection.
  • India is surrounded by destabilized neighbors who were having a history of refugee crises and currently experiencing the same in their own countries such as Myanmar, China, and Sri Lanka.


  1. Foreigners Act,1946- The act defines a foreigner as a person who is not a citizen of India.
  2. Registration of Foreigners Act,1939- It is an act to provide for the registration of foreigners.
  3. Passport Act,1967- The Passports Act is an act for the issue of passports and travel documents, to regulate the departure from India of citizens of India and for other persons, and for matters incidental or ancillary thereto.
  4. Extradition Act,1962- It is an act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the extradition of fugitive criminals and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  5. Citizenship Act,1955- It is an actto provide for the acquisition and determination of Indian 


By signing other important conventions which are intended to protect basic human rights and abide by India’s constitutional moralities.

  1. UN Declaration of Human Rights, 1948- To ensure fundamental human rights, dignity, and worth of human beings are universally protected. It is to promote equal rights for men and women and determined to achieve social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.
  2. International Covenant on civil and political rights- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treatythat commits states parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to lifefreedom of religionfreedom of speechfreedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.
  3. International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural rights- Recognizes the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family and considers it as the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world.
  4. UN Convention against Torture- It is an international human rights treaty, under the United Nations, that aims to prevent tortureand other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world. India is one of the countries that have signed, but not ratified the United Nations Convention Against Torture.
  5. Principle of non-refoulement- Under international human rights law, the principle of non-refoulement guarantees that no one should be returned to a country where they would face torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, and other irreparable harm. This principle applies to all migrants at all times, irrespective of migration status.
  6. Indian constitution
  • Fundamental Rights- Right to equality under Article 14, Right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 obligates India to ensure adequate safeguards for the refugees.
  • Directive Principles of State Policy- Article 51 of the Constitution directs the state to promote international peace and security and maintain just and honorable relationsbetween nations. It further directs the state to respect international law and treaty obligations and settle disputes peacefully.


  1. Geographical limitation – The convention initially concentrated on European countries, not covering entire humanity. The convention was framed as Euro-centric.
  2. Temporal limitation – Time limits initially restricted the convention to persons who became refugees due to events occurring in Europe before 1 January 1951.

1967 Protocol

An amendment to the 1951 Convention was made through the 1967 protocol. The 1967 Protocol broadens the applicability of the 1951 Convention. The 1967 Protocol removes the geographical and time limits that were part of the 1951 Convention. These limits initially restricted the Convention to persons who became refugees due to events occurring in Europe before 1 January 1951.


  1. Security concerns
  • Refugee influx poses severe internal security threats, especially in the North-eastern states.
  • Fuels the already existing separatist tendencies. For example- the “Bodoland statehood movement” where people demanded a separate state for safeguarding their rights.
  1. Demographic issues
  • Illegal migration often raises the “son of the soil” sentiments among the natives of the region which finally cause disharmony for the mutual-coexistence.
  • The motive of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam state was to identify Indian citizens in Assam amid “unabated” migration from East Pakistan, now Bangladesh during the Liberation war 1971.
  1. Porous Borders
  • Border management in India has been characterized by security ambivalence and a lack of strategic thinking.

This is evident from:

  • The absence of a policy to check infiltration/illegal migration from the eastern borders.
  • Inability to stop or contain cross-border terrorism; Eg:  Pathankot Cross border terrorism.
  • Trafficking in drugs and other contraband including fake currency.

 For example, India is sandwiched between the Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos) and the Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan) which increases its vulnerability to the trafficking of drugs.


  • India, the second most populous country which soon expects to surpass China in terms of population is already facing a resource crunch to meet its needs.
  • Pressure on natural resources automatically increases with the influx of refugees.
  • However, several countries’ situations were different as they have less population and large geographical space which can absorb refugees.

5.Lack of Confidence in United Nations High Commission for Refugees

  • During Bangladesh Liberation War 1971, UNHCR failed to serve the needs of India, not recognizing the devastating persecution in East Pakistan.
  • Pakistan military suppressed the people where lakhs of people migrated to India from present Bangladesh.
  • Therefore, the lack of credibility issue on UNHCR is another concern for India.


  1. Epitome of skills
  • Refugees from different worlds integrate different skills that can be utilized for India’s further economic growth. For instance, the Parsis are rich businessmen in the present scenario.
  1. Brings productivity
  • Better utilization of demographic sources across the world intensifies the productive capacity of the host countries.
  • Cultural diversity
  • Humanitarian values such as tolerance, and compassion can be transferred to society.


  • India is already bleeding herself due to Internal security concerns such as separatist tendencies, mob lynching, and Left-wing extremism.
  • The refugee issues are still sustaining from the previous acceptances of refugees.


  1. Proper legal frameworks- India has to devise proper legislation on refugee acceptance according to the country’s specific requirements.
  2. Champion of democracy- India, the Viswaguru needs to transform its moral values and philosophies into legal measures to protect the rights of the people.
  3. A National Immigration Commission can be appointed to frame a National Migration Policy and a National Refugee Policy for India
  4. Constructive arguments- Discussions and deliberations at UNSC can bring comprehensive global refugee policy.
  5. Out-of-the-box solution- Devise situational policies to help refugees and asylum seekers in their vulnerabilities. For example- India’s humanitarian aid to Afghanistan in terms of medical assistance and food grains is a guiding example.


Though India does not have an extrinsic policy, it has given asylum to many and is concerned in matters of refugees. So, what we need today is to make the intrinsic aspect extrinsic through appropriate laws and policy.The absence of a legal framework results into adhoc-dealing of refugee influx in India. The need of the hour is to better formulate a comprehensive India-specific Refuges policy to air out all procedural bottlenecks. At the same time, the intake of refugees should not be made at the cost of the native population. The Indian philosophy of “Vasudeva kudumbakam” where the whole World is One Family can be followed in letter and spirit by devising a clear-cut refugee policy.


Indian treatment of refugees does not deal with an extrinsic policy but intrinsic value system, Comment. What are the challenges in bringing refugee laws in India? (250 Words, 15 Marks)



According to Economic Survey for 2020-2021, the COVID-19 pandemic and induced lockdown caused the economy to improve the scale of the Gig economy.


  • Gig economy undermines the traditional economy of full-time workerswho rarely change positions and instead focus on a lifetime career.
  • A gig economy is a free market systemin which temporary, flexible jobs are commonplace, and companies tend toward hiring independent contractors and freelancers instead of full-time employees.
  • For example, in traditional employment, the employee has to reach a particular destination called a production house or factory, or office and provide his or her human capital to produce a particular product or service.

              In a gig economy, there is no traditional employee-employer relationship and no need of assembling at a particular place to deliver his services.




1.No permanent Employer-Employee relationship.

People become employed by a company to carry out work for that one company in particular. There is a permanent employer-employee relationship.

2.No long-term benefits are available to the employee.

The employee can avail of all the benefits associated with his job such as fringe benefits, Provident fund facility, etc.

3. A person owning the required tools or pieces of machinery can perform the task under a gig economy.

The employer may provide all the required tools and production facilities to the employees.

For example- Under Ola services, the person who owns a car can directly enter into the Ola services economy after registering the digital platform

For example- A toy manufacturing company has to provide raw materials and so-called types of machinery to produce a variety of toys. Employees need not bring machinery to the production center.


  1. Digital platform – Creation of a digital platform to connect service providers with service recipients. It is a form of an app-based platform where it provides works according to the needs of the customers such as making food deliveries, Logistic services, etc.
  2. Temporary service – Workers perform “gigs,” in which they are employed for a specific task or time. Once the task is complete, the worker is free to move on.
  3. Reduced control- The employer does not have full control over the employee unlike in the case of the traditional employer-employee relationship.
  4. Flexibility – It is up to the employee’s interest whether to provide his services which means no fixed period of a time period to perform the job.
  5. Aggregators – Different service providers are aggregated together through a digital platform to provide the required services.

For example- Take the case of Zomato, different persons have registered under that particular platform andare ready to procure the food from the restaurants. It is up to their will to do the work.

  1. No huge capital outlays – No huge investment in the form of office infrastructure or asset procurement for undertaking production. The only requirement is to have a digital platform to connect service providers and recipients.
  2. Tools and equipment – The service provider have to own all the tools and equipment to provide services. The employer is not in a position to provide the same.
  3. Feedback mechanism – Service recipients are free to give their feedback on the services availed so that the quality of services can be improved.
  4. Types of services – Food delivery such as Zomato, and Swiggy; Transportation facilities such as Ola; temporary hotel facilities such as Oyo are the main services under Gig economy
  5. Commoditizing the skill – The skills which were not commoditized hitherto got commoditized under the Gig platform using the digital medium.

For instance: a person possessing certain skills such as decorating the house for an event can commoditize their skill by registering with a digital platform and can provide the services.

  1. Trust – The entire platform is functioning under one aspect called trust. The service provider trusts the recipient in getting payment while the service recipient trusts the provider in getting the services within the determined time period.
  2. Holistic coverage of services – The gig economy cannot be confined to only food and transportation facilities. It can be expanded for highly skilled white jobs such as freelance content writers along with blue-collar works.


  1. Flexibility
  • Flexibility in working hours gives autonomy in functioning to the service providers
  • Gig economy benefits workers, businesses, and consumers by making work more adaptable to their needs and demands.
  • Absence of monotonous feeling for the workers by following a regular pattern.
  1. Commoditize the services
  • Gig economy helps to commoditize the services which were hitherto gone unrecognized in the economy.
  1. Multi-talented works
  • Gig economy provides the platform for those who are well versed in multi-talented skill. It helps a person to do multiple works during the same period.
  • For example: a plumber having car can provide plumbing services and transportation facilities if he or she is interested in performing multiple works.
  1. No one Boss philosophy
  • Unlike traditional employment, gig economy enables to have multiple masters. A service provider can register themselves with multiple employers and can perform his duties according to his will.
  1. Benefits employers
  • Short term contracts help the employers to avoid obligations in the long run.
  • In a gig economy, job providers save resources in terms of benefits like provident fund, paid leave and office space and other infrastructure facilities.
  • For instance –the food-tech company Zomato executed its Initial Public Offering plan with a stellar debut in the market.
  • Low concentration on Social responsibility since it is working through a digital platform.
  • The employer can procure very efficient people for performing irregular or temporary nature of works.
  • For example- An office requires sweeper every day, but it doesn’t require a computer repairer every day. It is because repairing is a specialized job and the computers need to repair whenever it is out of order which is not a frequent phenomenon, unlike sweeping activity.
  1. Seasonal Nature of job
  • Seasonal spikes in customer service helped in the rise of the gig economy.
  1. Employment opportunities
  • Higher demand for flexi-hiring options, especially for niche projects by MNCS to reduce operational expenses after the pandemic increased short-term job opportunities.
  • Currently, it is estimated to have a coverage of around 15 million job in the economy, but it can go up to 24 million and ultimately 90 million employment opportunities in the long term.
  1. No geographical limitation
  • By using the digital platform, the worker need notbe available at a fixed location as the job can be done from anywhere. This helps employers to select the best talent available for a project without being bound by geography.


For Employers

  1. Quality of the work
  • It becomes difficult to ascertain the quality of employees and their skills in the gig economy.
  • It is a major concern, especially for highly skilled jobs faced by employers.

For Employees

  1. Unstable Income – Employees are paid on the basis of completion of tasks, thus they are in a position of uncertainty regarding wage payment.
  2. No permanent relationship –The absence of personal bonding with employers since there is no permanent relationship between employer and employee.
  3. No social security benefits –There are limited benefits for gig workers such as accident insurance and life insurance coverage available now.
  4. High initial cost – Employees have to purchase needed tools and equipment for performing the job. Here, the employer will not provide machinery for employment.
  5. Absence of labour rights – The employees cannot claim labour rights unlike in the unorganized sector.

For instance: Recently, Zomato announced a pilot project to deliver food in just 10 minutes where people alleged that it will put the lives of their delivery partners in danger, as they will rush to meet the target.

For government

  1. Dynamic nature
  • Difficult to regulate the gig economy due to its flexible and dynamic nature
  • Therefore, the constituted labour laws become largely ineffective.
  1. Low social responsibility
  • Employers under the Gig platform have low responsibility to society.

Other concerns

  1. Disrupts traditional employment- The wide acceptance of the gig economy destructs the old nature of jobs in the economy.
  1. Regional disparity –The gig economy may not be accessible for people in many rural areas where internet connectivity and electricity are comparatively less unavailable with respect to urban areas.
  1. Requirement of minimum skill – A minimum level of skill is required for performing the job under the gig platform.

For example, a person needs to know “driving” for performing under the “Ola” taxi services.




1.Flexible nature of work- Women facing dual burdens in terms of family commitments and work pressure can contribute in a better way through the flexible nature of jobs in the gig economy.



Gender digital divide –  Women are less likely to operate digital devices such as smartphones and internet usagedue to reduced exposure compared to men.

2.New working environment- women are getting opportunities in areas like cab driving which were earlier prohibited for them. Thus,the Gig economy helps them to utilize their hidden potential.



Need for Skills – A woman needs to be skilled and re-skilled to perform a job. Unless a person is extremely talented, her bargaining power will necessarily be limited in the economy.

3.Economic independence – Better use of skills that were hitherto unused can be utilized through skilling and re-skilling gives them financial security.



Dignity of women – If some derogatory remarks or sexual harassment through digital means takes place, there is no clear-cut methodology to be followed unlike in the organized sector

  4.Digital empowerment – Increased use of digital technology and virtual working of sales and distribution jobs boosts the technology adaptation among women.



Absence of social security benefits –Women employed through gig platforms are not availing of benefits such as Maternity benefits which are inviting losses for them.

5.Equal pay – Equal pay for an equal job is quite possible in the gig economy, where providing services determines the payment and not the gender aspects.



 Gender stereotypes – High prevalence of gender stereotypes still exists in this sector, which restricts the full utilization of the hidden potential of women.

6.Saftety – There is no or minute scope for sexual harassment since women can choose their own work environment with adequate safety measures.


Regional digital gap – A wide gulf between urban and rural areas in terms of access to digital gadgets such as computers and the internet makes the gig platform mostly confined to urban areas. It further widens the gap between urban and rural women folks.



  1. Code on Wages, 2019
  • The code has provisions to ensure labour benefits for gig-economy workers. It provides for universal minimum wage and floor wage across organized and unorganized sectors, including gig workers.
  1. Code on Social Security, 2020 –
  • The code recognizes gig workers as a new occupational category. It defines a gig worker as a person who performs work or participates in work arrangements and earns from such activities, outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship.
  • It provides that central or state government may notify specific schemes for gig workers to provide various benefits, such as life and disability cover. Such schemes may be financed through a combination of contributions from the employer, employee, and the appropriate government.


  1. Improve work environment – The better peer-to-peer relationship between workers and employers will improve the working environment.
  2. Fix legislative loopholes – India could frame comprehensive legislation covering basic social security benefits including Maternity benefits, sick leave, etc.
  3. Empower the gig workers – Better awareness to be provided to the gig workers about their rights, allowances, and benefits to save them from any exploitation.
  4. Grievance redressal mechanism – Timely and effective grievance redressal mechanism is highly needed for the platform economy.


Therefore, the gig economy is an emerging platform that has the capability to create a revolution in the economy. It has the potential to absorb more workforce and it acts as a driving force for achieving a 5 trillion-dollar economy in the future.


Gig economy is revolutionising the whole economy in terms of scale, employment, explain. Critically examine the challenges that the sector is facing. (250 Words, 15 Marks)



 Compensatory Afforestation Fund is constituted so that every time forest land is diverted for non-forest purposes, the user agency pays a quantifiable Net Present Value (NP) amount for planting forests over an equal area of non-forest land, or when such land is not available, twice the area of degraded forest land.


  • Development purposes: For infrastructural activities such as the construction of roads, dams, laying railway tracks, mining, and industrial development.
  • Agriculture: For irrigation and agricultural practices such as slash and burn agriculture.
  • In 2019 alone, a total of 11,467 hectares of forest lands were diverted in 22 states.


  1. Carbon stock-Forest can capture and store a significant amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  2. Ameliorate extreme Climate-Regulation of extreme climates by reducing heat in summer and cold in winter.
  3. Influence the amount of rainfall and its variability.
  4. Renewable forest resources- Forest provides wood and paper-based goods, energy production from forest-based wood and biomass can replace other more greenhouse-gas intensive products.
  5. Cope with natural disasters- Reduce the risk of soil erosion, landslides, and avalanches.
  6. Biodiversity- The existence of different species through pollination, seed dispersal, and soil fertilization is ensured.
  7. Socio-economic benefits- Indigenous peoples’ rights to minor forest produce, sustainable livelihoods, rural development, and local employment, traditional medicines from forests for their health, and forest-based activities such as hunting and fishing.
  8. Timber- Hardwoods include teak, mahogany, logwood, iron-wood, ebony, sal, etc., which are used for furniture, and other commercial products whereas Softwood includes deodar, poplar, pine, fir, and cedar are useful for construction work and the production of paper pulp.


  • Conservation and compensation for forest diversion were originally mentioned in the Forest Conservation Act, of 1980.
  • Supreme Court rulings in TN Godavarman case 1995 stated forest land cannot be diverted until and unless needed for a core project.
  • Supreme Court of Indiaordered for establishment of the Compensatory Afforestation Fund and Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)in 2001.
  • Ministry of Environment and Forest constituted Compensatory Afforestation Fund in 2004
  • In 2006, Adhoc CAMPA was established for the management of the Compensatory afforestation fund.
  • In 2007, C&AG initiated the auditing of Adhoc CAMPA Accounts.
  • In 2008, the Supreme court exempted some projects which are vital for development from CAMPA frameworks.
  • Supreme Court in 2009 ordered to release of funds from the center to state government and prescribed rules for the utilization of those funds.
  • A bill for the same was passed by Loksabha and rejected by Rajyasabha in 2008.
  • In 2015, the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Climate Change again introduced the bill, which subsequently led to the enactment of The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016.


  • The Act established the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of India, and a State Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of each state.
  • These Funds will receive payments for (i) compensatory afforestation,(ii) net present value of forest (NPV), and (iii) other project-specific payments. 
  • The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.
  • These Funds will be primarily spent on afforestation to compensate for the loss of forest cover, regeneration of forest ecosystem, wildlife protection, and infrastructure development.
  • The Bill also establishes the National and State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authorities (CAMPA) to manage the National and State Funds.
  • The fund is a non-lapsable interest-bearing public fund.

CAMPA-3 level bodies

  1. Governing body- Under the union minister
  2. Executive body- To execute and finalize the plans.
  3. Monitoring body-To monitor and evaluate the spending of funds.


  1. Artificial regeneration of lost forest land.
  2. Better management of forest and its resources.
  3. Wildlife protection and ecosystem conservation.
  4. Mitigate rapid climate change issues.
  5. Technical and scientific expertise in planning.


  1. Low Community participation- CAMPA is not actively taking people into confidence. Community participation is the core criterion needed for its success.
  2. Under-utilization of funds- With 90% of funds being transferred to the state, the effective utilization of funds depends upon the efficiency of respective state forest departments.
  3. Lack of accountability- Growing plantation by clearing dense forest, thus practicing compensatory afforestation only in letter, not in spirit.
  4. Liberalizing forest diversion rules at the cost of environmental sustainability.
  5. Bureaucratic apathy- a low proportion of environmental experts in the body lead to less specialized efforts.


  1. Stakeholder consultation- Community participation to be utilized for better results.
  2. Quality- Focus on the quality of forest lands rather than the areas covered, to mitigate the issues of deforestation.
  3. Fund utilization- Proper utilization of funds for forest development than using them for administrative needs.
  4. No ambiguity- Specification of clear-cut rules for effective forest development.
  5. Expertise Body- The incorporation of specialists in the body may give better results.
  6. Outcome-Budgeting- Better monitoring of activities of state government improves accountability and responsibility to the environment.
  7. Strengthen CAMPA- As per the TSR Subramanian committee, the CAMPA body needs to be strengthened to take independent effective actions.


It is necessary to make the effective utilization of Compensatory Afforestation Funds in true letter and spirit which helps to achieve SDG 15-: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.


Explain how Campa (Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority) fund brings sustainable development? Suggest measures for effective functioning of it.

(150 Words, 10 Marks)



Recently, many spaceflight companies like SpaceX, Blue Origin, and Virginia galactic are coming forward to provide space tourism. Space tourism is a segment of space travel that allows people to travel to space for recreational, leisure, or business purposes.

Till now people visited space for space research, which is helpful for the development of mankind. But now, common people want to travel to space for non-scientific reasons.


  • In the beginning, the Soviet Union and the United States were completely engaged to attain domination in spaceflight technologies, but later they abandoned their project.
  • Today, it is private enterprises that are taking an active role in the commercial space race and taking a significant role in space-related technologies.


  • The Karman line is the internationally recognized boundary of space.
  • The line is defined by Theodore von Kármán,a Hungarian American engineer and Astro-physicist, who was active primarily in aeronautics and astronautics.
  • He considered the limit of space as the “Karman Line” at a height of 83.6 km. For space travel, this Karman line is to be crossed.

However, according to the Federation of international astronauts, the space line is at 100 km.


  • Societal development- When society evolves, people’s aspirations also start growing to a higher level.
  • Technology- Rapid growth in technological developments made new sectors like space tourism possible today.
  • Entrepreneurs- With greater incentives from the government, lots of entrepreneurs are evolving day by day.
  • Innovation- Due to greater emphasis on Research and Development, frequent innovations in terms of design as well as operational fields in the aviation sector are happening.
  • For instance: the development of Reusable launch vehicles that can be relaunched further and thus reduces the cost.


  1. Advancement in Space Research
  • Space tourism enhances the technical capacity and capabilities which in turn can be utilized for further space research programs.
  1. Foreign collaboration
  • Policies such as Joint Ventures enable technology transfer between countries which can be developed for multiple purposes.
  • The planned Gaganyaan mission of India is a perfect example where the active collaboration of Russia and France helped India to reach the next stage of exploration.
  1. Private sector participation
  • Active participation of private parties for commercial space flights promoted the space industry as the fastest-growing sector.
  • The efficiency and effectiveness of private sectors in the operational design of aircraft help agencies like ISRO to explore more and reach a higher level.
  1. Development of the aviation sector
  • Space tourism helps in the creation of multiple opportunities for the development of the aviation sector particularly the manufacturing field. It helps in the development of ancillary units in the aviation sector.
  1. Training facilities
  • Better training ecosystem will create more employment opportunities in the economy.
  1. Scientific temper
  • The evolving space tourism will create curiosity and logical thinking among the youths.
  • This rational and scientific thinking and induced interest will ultimately contribute more resources to the nation in terms of innovation and inventions.


  1. Safety concerns
  • Lack of security- The commercial spacecraft’s entry into space and re-entry to the atmosphere incurs a huge risk, even the slightest deviation can lead to a disaster.
  1. Health issues
  • Health concerns as passengers could also face motion sickness and disorientation, which can affect vision, cognition, balance, and motor control.
  1. Climatic risk
  • Increased pollutants from rocket fuel and heating caused by spacecraft returning to Earth along with debris are harmful to the ozone layer.
  • Another major concern is the black carbon soot emitted by the rockets directly into the atmosphere where these soots are efficient at retaining heat.
  • As a result, experts are worrying because space tourism may undermine the progress made by the Montreal Protocol in reversing Ozone depletion.


  1. Independent regulator – Creating an independent regulator for space tourism can help in instilling confidence among private players.
  2. Capacity building -Training, and better medical screenings to be provided to the tourists who are interested in space tourism.
  3. Incentives to private companies – Opening up ISRO’s testing facilities to the private sector will reduce costs and increase incentives and grants for firms to build operational spacecraft.
  4. Research and Development- It is necessary to deepen research works to address the growing climatic concerns raised by environmental experts.


Space tourism is one of the world’s fastest-growing recreational sectors. This sector has huge potential for socio-economic benefits in terms of employment opportunities and innovation. But at the same time, a sound regulatory policy is needed to assure the safety protocols for a sustainable tourism.


Space tourism is Technology driven tourism with its socio- economic benefits. Discuss. List out the concerns associated with space tourism.(150 Words, 10 Marks)

Does India Need Two Time Zones


Recently, Assam Chief minister Himanta Biswa Sarma stressedthe need for a separate Time Zone for the country.


  • It was the British who envisaged a separate time zone in the tea gardens of Assam around 150 years ago. 
  • “Chai Bagan time” or “local time” followed in the tea gardens is primarily a time zone set on the sunrise.
  • Before September 1947, India followed three different time zones: Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.
  • From September 1, 1947, India officially adopted 5° E longitude as Indian Standard Time (IST) which is equal to Coordinated Universal Time + 5 hours 30 minutes.
  • The Assam wants to change its zone back to the British’s Chaibagaan time to conserve energy and improve productivity.
  • Government of India didn’t accept the proposal.


  • Countries across the globe keep different time zones because of Earth’s rotation and revolution around the Sun.
  • When the Earth turns by 15° around its axis, the time changes by one hour thus, a 360º degree rotation yields 24 hours and 1° takes around 4 minutes.
  • In 1884, an international agreement agreed to choose the zero meridiansas the one that passes through the Royal Astronomical Observatory at Greenwich, near London.
  • This is the Prime Meridian (0°) from which all other meridians radiate eastwards and westwards up to 180°.
  • They determine local time in relation to G.M.T. or Greenwich Mean Time, which is sometimes referred to as World Time.
  • It is concluded that places east of Greenwich see the sun earlier and gain time, whereas places west of Greenwich see the sun later and lose time.


  • Indian Standard Time calculates on the basis of 82.5° E longitude, situated to the west of the town Mirzapur, near Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh.

The longitude difference between Mirzapur and the United Kingdom’s Royal Observatory at Greenwich would be around 5 hours 30 minutes.


  1. Fuels productivity
  • Northeast loses important daylight which can be used productively as the sun rises as early as 4 am in summer and offices open at 10.
  1. Wastage of resources
  • Save on power consumption – Advancing the time by 30 minutes alone could save 2.7 billion units of electricity every year.
  1. Environmental benefits
  • Significantly reduces the carbon footprint and arrests rapid climate change
  1. Circadian rhythm
  • People’s productivity and efficiency follow a biological clock that is synchronized with the daily light-dark cycles.
  • Circadian rhythm is the 24-hour cycle that tells our bodies when to sleep, rise, and eat which is regulating many physiological processes.
  • Internal body clock is affected by environmental cues, like sunlight and temperature, and determines whether one feels wide-awake and energized or tired.
  • Cognitive Impairment- Sleep deprivation negatively impacts the cognitive intake of children.
  1. Social benefits
  • It can reduce road accidents.
  • Better safety ecosystem for women, especially working professionals.
  1. Economic gain
  • India incurs an annual human capital loss of around 0.2 percent of nominal GDP due to the existing Single time zone policy.


  1. National mismatch
  • Mismatch in office timings and different working hours for banks may lead to confusion.
  • Chances that railway accidents might become more frequent.
  1. Disturbs Unity
  • India is already divided into lines of language,religion, ethnicity, and caste. It may further aggravate the dividing tendency to the next level.
  1. Operational difficulty
  • It is difficult to reset clocks with each crossing of the time zone.
  1. Strategic reasons
  • Northeast demanding separate statehood would get a legitimate reason to justify their need for separation from the mainstream Indian subcontinent.


  • Demand for different time zones was first raised in 2002. Since then, the matter raised in Parliament16 times.
  • In 2006, the Planning Commission recommended two time zones.
  • In 2009, an expert committee was appointed by the union ministry on Science and Technology and found North Eastern states incur huge wastages due to early sunrise, thus working hours must be ahead by one hour.
  • A report by CSIR-NPL stated the need for two time zones- 1) IST-1 where UTC+ 5 hours and 30 minutes, 2) IST-2 where UTC+6 hours 30 minutes are to be provided. Moreover, a line has to be drawn from 89.52° E longitude passing through the “chicken’s neck” in West Bengalas coordinated UTC to be constructed.
  • However, a High-Level Committee by the Secretary of Science and Technology, DG of CSIR-NPL, and Chief Secretary of Tripura recommended not to have two zones due to strategic reasons.


The need of the hour is to study those countries having multiple time zones such as the USA, Canada, and Russia, about their way of operation, and day-to-day mechanisms. It is better to consult all the stakeholders and arrive at a better decision based on reliable evidences.



Recently, Union Home Minister urged the states to adopt the Hindi language as an alternative to Englishin inter-State communication.


  • Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language in Articles 343 to 351.
  • Article 343(1) of the constitution provides:
  • Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the Union.
  • For official purposes, the international form of Indian numerals shall be used.
  • At the state level, the state legislature can decide on its own official language and can have multiple languages as the official language.
  • Along with these provisions, The Constituent Assembly in 1949 stated that for a period of 15 years from the inception of the Constitution, the English language would continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union.
  • After 15 years, the Parliament may provide for the continued use of the English language for specified purposes.
  • Eighth Schedule of the Constitution specifies 22 languages including Hindi. Originally only 14 languages were recognized which further expanded with subsequent constitutional amendments:
    • Sindhi language was added via the 21st Constitutional Amendment Act in 1967
    • Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali languages were added via the 71st Constitutional Amendment Act in 1992
    • Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santali were included by the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act in 2003
    • The word Oriya was changed to Odia by the 96th Constitutional Amendment Act in 2011
  • Article 344 – Article 344(1) provides for the constitution of a Commission by the President on the expiration of five years from the commencement of the Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of ten years from such commencement. It is to be constituted to make recommendations for the progressive use of Hindi for the official purpose of the union and restricting the use of the English language.
  • The President of India appointed an Official Language Commission under the chairmanship of G. Kher in 1955.The commission submitted its report to the President in 1956.
  • In 1959, non-Hindi-speaking states expressed their apprehensions about the imposition of the Hindi language on those states.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru gave an assurance in 1959 that English would remain in official use and as the language of communication between the Centre and the States.
  • Consequently, in 1963, the Official Languages Act was passed by the Parliament, which provided that:
  • English ‘may’ still be used along with Hindi for official communication even after 1965, in addition to Hindi, for all official purposes of the Union and also for the transaction of business in Parliament.
  • After the expiration of ten years from the date, there shall be constituted a Committee on Official Language, on a resolution to that effect being moved in either House of Parliament with the previous sanction of the President and passed by both Houses.
  • It shall be the duty of the Committee to review the progress made in the use of Hindi for the official purposes of the Union and submit a report to the President making recommendations thereon and the President shall cause the report to be laid before each House of Parliament, and sent to all the State Governments.
  • However, no such committee was constituted till now.
  • Moreover, the Official Language Act did not explicitly incorporate the assurance given by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1959, making the apprehensions still pertaining in some states.
  • In 1976, in the exercise of the powers conferred by section 8 of the Official Language Act,1963, the Central Government made the Official Language Rule 1976.
    • They shall extend to the whole of India, except the State of Tamil Nadu because of the rising protest from the state.


  • The basic reason is to ensure better official and administrative transactions and communication between the union and different state governments in the country.
  • Being a multi-linguistic, and multi-ethnic nation, an official language would ensure that every citizen can do commerce and business without any regard to their ethnicity or linguistic barriers.
  • By means of official languages, the government makes sure that every domestic business runs smoothly and perfectly.
  • Our constitution doesn’t mention about national language.
  • National language in short represents a nation’s identity. A nation can be expressed not merely as an administrative or political entity but as an emotional and biological entity also. The nation as a whole belongs to a particular lineage.
  • Therefore, it is very difficult to draw the complete lineage of a country to a particular language such as Hindi.
  • Hindi itself is not a classical language. The Hindi language is not even generated from a particular place and it is actually a mix of several languages. Thus, it is difficult for such a language to represent the soul of a whole nation.
  • The twinning nature of language and culture makes it very hard for people to adopt one particular language that symbolizes the nation.
  • This is the basic reason why our constitution framers avoided the concept of the national language.
  • Despite India being diverse in terms of linguistic, geographic, cultural, and religious-wise, but as a Nation, India symbolizes the spirit of Unity.


  • Article 351 states that “The Constitution provides for the spread of the Hindi language to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India”.
  • Central government is constitutionally duty bound to promote the spread of Hindi as a medium of exchange, which would be beyond the administrative and official communication purposes.
  • Therefore, in order to implement constitutional provisions to promote Hindi as a medium of expression, three language formula was introduced in the National Policy of Education in 1968 as part of the policy.
  • Three language formula is basically to impart different languages at the school level to the children.
  • Now, Education is on the concurrent list; the Union government can take any policy for the promotion of the Hindi language. But the element of language is very sensitive as it is closely interlinked with the cultural aspects of the people.

National Policy of Education 1968

  • The teaching of Hindi across the country was crystallized into a policy in an official document- National Policy on Education, 1968 by Kothari Commission.
  • First language -The First Language is the ‘Mother tongue’ or the regional language.
  • Second language – In Hindi-speaking states, the second language would be English or some other language belonging to Modern India. In Non- Hindi states, the second language will be English or Hindi.
  • Third language – In Hindi-speaking states, the third language would be English or some other language belonging to Modern India, but the one that is not chosen as the second language. In Non- Hindi states, the third language will be English or some other language belonging to Modern India, but the one which is not chosen as the second language.

National Education Policy 2020

  • NEP 2020 recommended the ‘three-language formula’ with the view to promoting multilingualism and national unity. But this new education policy does not impose any language on citizens.
  • NEP 2020 also recommends the medium of instruction to be in the home language/mother tongue/local language or regional language in primary classes.
  • The policy is aligned with Article 350A of the Constitution which deals with the facilities for instruction in the mother tongue at the primary stage.


  • The Constitution of India has not given any language a national status.
  • The Constitution of India nowhere mentioned imposing a particular language in the school curriculum.
  • Federal Philosophy -Imposing a particular language would threaten the idea of cooperative federalism in India.
  • Pluralistic Society – The culture, and civilization of India have always been a multilingual society.
  • Insecure Minorities- imposing one language may cause minorities to feel insecure and place their languages in a vulnerable position.
  • Language genesis -The status of language has been a critical issue that has caused the division of states in the past. For instance, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab were created on a linguistic basis.


It is better to provide state autonomy in choosing a language formula respecting the diversity of the nation. The state of Tamil Nadu is a guiding example in ensuring national integrity without imposing any particular language on people, i.e., National unity must not come at the cost of people’s linguistic identities. However, there must be a common lingua franca so that the spirit of nationalism will enhance as envisaged by the constitution makers in choosing an official language for administrative purposes.


What do you understand by National Language? Does the medium of expression mentioned under Article 351 hold the National Language status? Explain. (250 Words, 15 Marks)



Recently, the WTO’s 12th Ministerial Conference (MC12) took place in the month of June 2022 at WTO headquarters in Geneva. Ministers across the globe reviewed the functioning of the multilateral trading system, made general statements, and the future work of the WTO. All the 164 member nations met and made important remarks on issues that can be termed as “Geneva Package”.


  • The WTO’s creation on 1 January 1995 marked the biggest reform in the field of international trade. The Uruguay Roundconducted from 1987 to 1994 resulted in the formulation of the Marrakesh Agreement which established the World Trade Organization (WTO).
  • From 1948 to 1994, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided the rules for world trade and witnessed some of the highest growth rates in international commerce. 
  • The “GATT”, the predecessor of the WTO mainly dealt with trade in goods only.
  • However, World Trade Organization deals with not only the goods, but also services, investments, movement of people, and intellectual property rights.
  • The WTO’s membership has expanded to 164 members, representing over 98% of international trade. India is one of the founding members of the World Trade Organization.
  • From the early days of the Silk Road to the creation of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and to the creation of WTO, trade has played an important role in supporting economic development and promoting peaceful relations among nations.
  • The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade across the globe.
  • The World Trade Organization acts as a forum to negotiate trade rules, conduct trade in a fair manner, and provide a level playing field for all countries. Therefore, it provides a platform for settling economic disputes among themselves.
  • The ultimate goal of WTO is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible.


The Ministerial Conference is the highest decision-making body of the WTO and usually meets every two years. The WTO’s first Ministerial Conference was held in Singapore in December 1996.

Important ministerial conferences

  1. Ministerial conference 1
  • Singapore Packages 1996
  1. Ministerial conference 4
  • Doha Round: The Doha Round was launched in 2001 to achieve major reform of the international trading system through the introduction of lower trade barriers and revised trade rules.
  1. Ministerial conference 9
  • Bali Packages: New trade facilitation agreement, Simplified customs procedures, Agreements on food security.
  1. Ministerial conference 10
  • Nairobi package 2015
  1. Ministerial conference 11
  • Buenos Aires 2017: Lack of consensus from developed countries. For instance, the US’s reluctance in solving issues of the WTO’s Appellate Body.
  • Thus, no concrete decisions were made in MC 11.
  1. Ministerial conference 12
  • Kazakhstan was originally scheduled to host MC12 in June 2020 but the conference was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Finally, the postponed MC12 was recently held in Geneva which was co-hosted by Kazakhstan.
  • Ministers from across the world attended MC12 at Geneva which led to an outcome called the “Geneva Package” 2022.


  1. Agriculture and Food security
  • Normally, countries can impose export restrictions on their agriculture production. It was during the Ministerial Conference 9 at Bali in 2013 which allowed a Peace clause that continued exemptions for developing countries to stockpile agricultural products to protect against food shortages in the country.
  • At MC12, a Ministerial Decision was taken on exempting the purchase of food items from export prohibitions or restrictions for the United Nations World Food Programme humanitarian needs. This decision is necessary to meet the growing hunger crisis across the world.


  • To address food shortages and soaring food prices on account of the Covid-19 pandemic and the Ukraine-Russia war.
  • To ensure that the most vulnerable people can access emergency food aid.
  • To solve acute Hunger and malnutrition faced by certain countries.


  • Humanitarian Exemption: Even now, countries can impose export restrictions to ensure their domestic food security.


  • MC12 took no decision on India’s demand to export subsidy-backed food grains procured through National Food Security Act 2013 and Public Distribution System as it is said to be against WTO rules and regulations.
  • No assurances from WTO for India’s Public stock-holding program to ensure food security.

  1. Fisheries
  • Curb Harmful subsidies: The agreement prohibits support in the form of harmful subsidies for next four years in illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing.  
  • Bans overfishing: To protect global fish stocks by eliminating over-exploitation beyond their rate of replenishment. The package also took the decision to restrict overcapacity and overfishing by ending subsidies for fishing on the unregulated high seas.
  • Recognizes the rights of fishing communities: Around 260 million people depend on marine fisheries for their livelihood. Recognizing their rights ensures the development of fishing communities.
  • No limitation: There is no limitation on subsidies granted by developing and Least developed countries for fishing in their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).


  • Environment sustainability- Removing unwanted subsidies helps in the replenishment of the fish population which stabilizes the marine ecosystem.
  • Welfare of the fishing community – The recognition of their rights helps them to lead a dignified life which benefits their future generation too.
  • Lip service- The environmental experts stated that curbing subsidies for four years without complete removal will not result into a comprehensive solution.


  • Aligned with India’s demand – Government of India demanded not to impose subsidy restriction within Exclusive Economic Zones since a vast number Indian population depends on marine resources. India opinioned to curb subsidies beyond Exclusive Economic Zones. Thus, the MC12 decision on subsidy limitation beyond EEZ favours India.
  • Economic wellbeing – The decision empowered the Indian government to provide more incentives for fishing activities which ultimately improves the economic status of fishing community.


  1. Moratorium on e-Commerce work program
  • Countries agreed to maintain their current practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions. The electronic transmissions under this moratorium include electronically ordered and electronically delivered products and services such as software, music, e-books, video games, etc. However, the online ordered and physically delivered products doesn’t come under this category.
  • The moratorium will remain in effect until MC13, to be held by the end of 2023 or until 31 March 2024 whichever is earlier.
  • This moratorium since its adoption in 1998, helped in preserving the environment for the global digital economy and millions of businesses and jobs were dependent on it.


  • Initially, India was reluctant to participate in talks on electronic transmissions since the country was not much comfortable in trading electronic transmissions. India opinioned that by not knowing the intricacies of this sector, joining the talks will only help developed countries. Moreover, the rules framed may not be in favour for developing countries and least developed countries. However, India has joined the talk now.


  • Sovereign right- It was the sovereign right to impose tax by the developing and least developed countries for the import of electronic transmissions but WTO stands against their demand.
  • Disparity- The majority of e-commerce transactions are concentrated in developed countries. The contributions from developing countries are minimum in electronic transmissions. So there exists a wide disparity between developed and developing countries.
  • Economic loss- Developing countries incur a loss of around 10 billion dollars per annum for custom-free imports where the products enter the domestic market with no customs duties.
  • Dumping-Domestic industries will be adversely affected due to the dumping of products at low prices from developed countries.
  1. Covid-19 Vaccine protection
  • Waiver: The conference agreed on the waiverof certain requirements under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) concerning the use of compulsory licenses to produce COVID-19 vaccines only.
  • Provided a relaxation for five years: Those countries producing vaccines up to 2027 need not p ay any royalty to original manufacturers.


  • Not comprehensive- The waiver requirement doesn’t include therapeutics and diagnostic tools which are widely demanded by the countries for their growing importance in the present scenario such as Covid 19, the prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases, etc.
  • Delayed decision: The agreed waiver has come too late whereas India and South Africa started demanding the waiver much earlier.
  • Logistics: Lack of proper logistic facilities such as required cold storage facilities is a major concern for developing and least developed countries.


  • Vaccine equity: Waiver of intellectual property rights on Covid-19 vaccine can diversify the production and ensure the availability of enough vaccines at the global level.
  • Business ethics: The decision would act as a shock against the rich pharmaceutical companies who tried to profiteer the pandemics. The current decision of the waiver, demands a more ethical perspective from the business community towards humanity.


  • India on signing the agreement can produce any vaccines without paying royalties to manufacturers until 2027. Manufactures must also transfer their technologies to India.
  • The procedure of some vaccines such as Moderna, MRNA vaccines etc., are very complex and its logistics is very difficult. The requirement of cold storage even minus temperature and the deliverance of vaccines within short period with no wastages are major concerns.
  • India being hub of pharmaceuticals could produce new medicines and diagnostic kits, if waiver of IPR on diagnostic tools and therapeutics are provided.


  • Appellate mechanism: Deadlock in appointing judges to the WTO Appellate Body to be rectified to strengthen dispute settlement mechanisms.
  • Trust deficit: Inclusive and transparent working process to bridge the trust deficit between developed and developing countries.
  • Holistic approach: Waiver on IPR covering diagnostic tools and therapeutics needs to be considered. The decision to appoint a committee for monitoring the said IPR exemption needs to be timely executed.
  • Deliberations: Negotiations and discussions to solve differences of interests between the member nations. It promotes the utility of multilateral institutions at the global level.


It is high time to make structural changes to the working of WTO to meet the changing needs of 21st century. The need of the hour is to better implement Geneva packages and its decisions without fail, to ensure a level playing field for the global trade ecosystem. 


Food security is a key concern for developing countries like India.How far do you think the recent12th WTO meeting addressed this concern?(250 Words, 15 Marks)



 Oceans are said to be the lungs of our planet. Recently, World Ocean Day was celebrated on June 8, 2022, with the theme, “Revitalization: Collective Action for the Ocean”. This year World Ocean Day focused on the life and livelihood that the ocean sustains.


  1. Regulation of climate- Oceans influence the global For e.g. –the Indian Monsoon mechanism.
  2. Replenishing oxygen- According to the UN, at least 50% of the oxygen is produced by the
  3. Supporting Humanity- Ocean provides food and nutritional
  4. Livelihood- By 2030, around 40 million people would be employed in Ocean-based Industries.
  5. Tourism-Marine tourism supports a substantial part of the GDP of several
  6. International shipping lanes- Sea Lanes of Communication (SLOCS) plays a critical role in energy security and the socio-economic development of the
  7. Resources- Ocean is a rich source of minerals, polymetallic Nodules, medicinal products, and rich flora and
  8. Carbon sequestration- 30% of carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans, produced by human activities, buffering the impacts of global


 Human-induced Actions

  1. Climate change- Rapid change in climate and increased Global warming disturb the ocean
  2. Ocean acidification- Decrease in pH of the Earth’s oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere which corrodes animal shells and their existence at
  3. Eutrophication- Excessive growth (or bloom) of algae and plankton in water bodies due to enriched nutrients from fertilizers, and industrial wastages may kill a wide variety of marine species. As per UN estimates, around 90% of big fish populations were
  4. Coral bleaching- Due to the rise in sea temperature and increased uptake of carbon dioxide, the symbiotic algae zooxanthellae get disturbed leading to coral destruction. According to UN estimates, around 50% of coral reefs
  5. Sedimentation- Solid waste discharges from industries before treatment and fertilizer runoffs negatively impact the water quality and the lives in it.
  6. Melting of Polar ice caps- melting of ice caps and rise in sea level due to increased green gas house emissions disturbs the coastal communities. Moreover, the effect of increasing fresh water on marine life is yet to be

Direct Human Intervention

  1. Pollution 
    • Toxic Chemicals from Industries are directly discharged into the oceans,
    • Micro plastics- Oceans have a lot of plastic waste being disposed of in them which is degrading the life in
  2. Oil spills- Pollution caused by ships is extremely toxic to marine life, and it suffocates marine animals to
  3. Deep-sea mining- Drilling of ocean sites for silver, gold, copper, cobalt, and zinc creates excessive sulfide deposits.
  4. Overfishing- Continued practice of bottom
  5. Land runoffs- Land-based sources such as agricultural run-off, discharge of nutrients and pesticides, and untreated sewage including plastics account for approximately 80% of marine


Global actions

  1. UN 2021-2030 Decade of Ocean Science – The UN has declared a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) to support efforts to restore ocean health.
  2. UN Ocean Conference – UN Ocean Conference or Lisbon declaration aims to achieve carbon neutrality by 2040 and allocate funds to research on ocean acidification, climate resilience, and surveillance.
  3.  Food and Agricultural Organisation – Aims at addressing improper agricultural practices and bringing behavioral changes toward sustainable agricultural practices.

India’s action

  1. Deep ocean mission- Technological Innovations for Exploration and Conservation of Deep-sea biodiversity and to estimate the potential of polymetallic nodules in the
  2. National Fishing Policy- A national policy for promoting the ‘Blue Growth Initiative’ which focuses on sustainable utilization of fisheries wealth from marine and other aquatic
  3. Blue Economy- Sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods and jobs, and ocean ecosystem


  1. Research and development- Understand the scientific reasons behind the changes and disseminate and, collaborate with different
  2. Mapping of vulnerable ocean areas- Actively mapping vulnerable sites and prioritizing actions on the basis of
  3. Global Governance- Oceans are considered as global commons; thus, an integrative initiative will
  4. Marine spatial Planning- Analyze and allocate the spatial and temporal distribution of human activities in marine
  5. Political Will- Active implementation of international policies and plans to conserve
  6. Funding- adequate funds for sustainable development raised through Public-Private
  7. Bioremediation- Use of specific microorganisms to metabolize and remove harmful substances to treat oil
  8. Organic Farming- Limit agricultural pesticides and encourage organic farming & eco-friendly pesticide use.
  9. Proper sewage treatment and exploration of eco-friendly wastewater treatment options to be
  10. Deep-sea sea fishing- Transition from trawling to deep-sea fishing is a better solution


The need of the hour is to better find a new balance in our relationship with the marine environment and focus on the mantra – ‘Restore Ocean resources, Repair the ocean ecosystem and return to sustainable use of ocean resources’. It will lead the way in achieving sustainable Development Goal: 14 – To conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.