WHY IN THE NEWS?
Recently, Union Cabinet approved the auction of airwaves capable of generating 5G services and gave its nod for setting up captive 5G networks by big tech companies.
5G is the fifth-generation mobile network, the latest up-gradation to the long-term evolution (LTE) of mobile broadband networks. The 5G network will operate in the millimeter-wave spectrum (30-300 GHz) which can send large amounts of data at very high speeds as the frequency is very high. Moreover, it experiences little interference from surrounding signals.
EVOLUTION OF TELECOM TECHNOLOGY
- 1G: It was launched in the 1980s and only supports voice
- 2G: It was launched in the 1990s and provides a platform for voice calls and sending and receiving messages
- 3G: It was launched in 2000 and supports voice calls, sending messages, and video
- 4G: It was launched in 2010, and supports all 3G features with higher
- 5G: It was launched in the 2020s and has a speed of 20 times that of
ASPECTS OF TELECOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
- Devices- To suit the configuration of
- Communication Infrastructure- Such as telephone exchange for telecom
- Spectrum- It acts as a medium to transmit electromagnetic The government has control over it since it is a natural resource. This is the reason why telecom operators resort to the bidding process.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 4G & 5G
Low bandwidth of 6 GHz
High bandwidth ( 28- 39 GHz)
Higher latency as it takes 60- 98 milliseconds
Low latency, i.e. around 5 milliseconds
Low as there is a limit under one tower
High as there is more number of connections under a
Rolling out 5G Services
Only cell towers
Small cell technology along with cell towers placed in the area to ensure high speed
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM ) Encoding
Absent, so there is high interference of signals
Split different signals into different channels to avoid interference
SIGNIFICANCE OF 5G
- To enable High-speed data transmission that augments the pace of the Fourth Industrial
- To transfer the capabilities of Artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things to the next level.
- For g.: A driverless car needs multiple integrations of technologies such as GPS, sensors, Traffic signals, etc., to run the vehicle with zero tolerance for accidents. For this effectiveness and efficiency, it requires high-speed data transmission.
- Automatization: Automation of Industrial production would enhance occupational safety like radiation exposure, and gas
- Agriculture: The use of precision farming, RFID Sensors, GPS technology, weather information, etc. enables farmers to manage farms more
- Healthcare: Along with telemedicine, high-speed data transmission provides health facilities accessible to the remotest location in the
- Education: Pandemic has opened a platform for blended learning that is possible with high-speed data
- Transportation: It provides accurate data to commuters, saves time, reduces wastage, and increases fuel use efficiency ultimately leading to sustainable
- Environmental benefits: Better monitoring of pollution standards and dissemination of data can conserve
- Good governance: Empower citizens through quick and transparent decision-making, better city planning, and transform existing cities into smart
GOVERNMENT PROVISIONS REGARDING AUCTION
- The auction of over 72 GHz of the spectrum will be held by mid-2022.
- The validity period for the auction is 20
- Removed the provision of Spectrum Usage charges (earlier 3-5% of Aggregate Gross Revenue is charged).
Rolling out 5G Services
- No need for a bank guarantee unlike in the past, which eased the burden on
- No upfront payment is needed; payment can be made in 20 equal installments for the
- Provision to surrender auction after 10 years without any liabilities
- Critical infrastructure: India is lagging in terms of device capability when compared to
- Ecosystem: Lack of integration and alignment of 5G technological
- Rural integration: Delayed rolling of the Bharatnet program in rural areas is a cause of
- Impediments on semiconductor industry: Acts as a barrier to developing 5G
- Niche sector: Confines mostly for Industrial usage than the common
- Financial burden: Upgrading to the latest technology increases financial strain on
- Economic Feasibility: Instills doubt about the feasibility and viability of the project, at least in the short
- Oligarchy: The oligarchical setting of internet charges may rule the market in the
- Cost of the spectrum: Bidders are demanding a moratorium for the payment of spectrum
- Case of non-telecom companies: Non-telecom enterprises have a specific telecom spectrum for internal production purposes to run their operations whereas telecom companies are opposing this government
- Over Optimism: Introduction of 4G with huge expectations faced some blockades and non-fulfillment of several The probability of a similar fate in 5G technology can be a concern.
- Setting technical institutes: 8 top technical institutes were initiated to study about 5G technology, its impediments, power consumption, and its effective
- Production Linked Incentive Scheme: To make India a telecom manufacturing hub in the near
- Semiconductor Mission: To display a vibrant semiconductor industry and manufacturing ecosystem in
5G technology has the potential to completely transform the production process and fuel the country’s aim to achieve a 5 trillion-dollar economy. It reshapes the country’s governance more citizen centric and ultimately enables sustainable development.